Objective—To assess the impact of cycles of freezing and thawing on magnetic resonance (MR) images (obtained by use of a 3-T magnet) of equine feet examined ex vivo.
Sample—9 forelimbs from 9 horse cadavers.
Procedures—9 forefeet underwent MR imaging first at ambient temperature within 12 hours after the horses' death and then after each freezing-thawing cycle. Three digits underwent freezing and thawing (at 4°C for 36 hours) 2 times, 3 digits underwent freezing and thawing (at 4°C for 36 hours) once and rescanning after 24 hours at ambient temperature, and 3 digits underwent freezing and thawing at ambient temperature for 24 hours once. Images of the digits obtained prior to freezing were subjectively compared with images obtained after freezing and thawing. Changes in the signal-to-noise ratio between examinations were assessed.
Results—Overall image quality was considered unchanged except for the hoof capsule. Quantitative analysis revealed signal-to-noise ratio changes in bone marrow, soft tissues, and hoof capsule induced with both thawing processes. The signal-to-noise ratio in the sy-novial recess of the distal interphalangeal joint significantly increased as a result of thawing at4°C.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall image quality was considered unchanged except for the hoof capsule, results suggested that changes induced in cadaver limbs following freezing and thawing, which are probably attributable both to modified and inhomogeneous temperature distribution and direct tissue damage, may alter the reliability of signal intensity in ex vivo MR examinations.
Treatment of orofacial tumors in dogs is associated with high morbidity and reliable prognostic factors are lacking. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCECT) can be used to assess tumor perfusion. The objectives of this study were to describe the perfusion parameters of different types of orofacial tumors and to describe the changes in perfusion parameters during radiotherapy (RT) in a subset of them.
11 dogs with orofacial tumors prospectively recruited.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES
All dogs had baseline DCECT to assess blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), and transit time (TT). Five dogs had repeat DCECT during megavoltage RT.
5 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 sarcomas, 1 melanoma, 1 histiocytic sarcoma, and 1 acanthomatous ameloblastoma were included. Blood volume and BF were higher in squamous cell carcinomas than in sarcomas, although no statistical analysis was performed. At repeat DCECT, 4 dogs showed a reduction in the size of their tumor during RT. Among these dogs, 3 showed an increase in BV and BF and 1 a decrease in these parameters between the baseline and the follow-up DCECT. The only dog whose tumor increased in size between the first and the second DCECT showed a decrease in BV and BF.
Perfusion parameters derived from DCECT were described in a series of dogs with various types of orofacial tumors. The results suggest that epithelial tumors could have higher BV and BF than mesenchymal tumors, although larger sample sizes are needed to support these preliminary findings.