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  • Author or Editor: Valentine D. Verpaalen x
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3 juvenile (4 to 5 months of age) medium- to large-breed or crossbred dogs were evaluated for sudden unilateral non–weight-bearing lameness in a pelvic limb after a fall during strenuous activity.


All dogs had non–weight-bearing lameness (n = 2) or bore minimal weight (1) on the affected pelvic limb, had soft tissue swelling over the cranial aspect of the stifle joint in the affected limb, seemed to resist manipulation of the affected joint, and had tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture confirmed with radiography.


Each dog underwent surgical fracture reduction and stabilization with a hybrid circular-linear external skeletal fixator construct with interfragmentary Kirschner wires used to stabilize the avulsed tibial tuberosity. Successful fracture reduction and stabilization were achieved, and only minor postoperative complications occurred. Construct removal 2 weeks postoperatively resulted in no displacement of the tibial tuberosity in 2 dogs and only minor proximal displacement in the remaining dog, allowed for continued unencumbered growth through the apophysis and proximal tibial epiphysis in all dogs, and did not result in tibial conformational anomalies. Clinical outcome was considered excellent in 2 dogs with complete resolution of lameness and good in 1 dog with subsequent occasional mild lameness.


Our findings suggested that the described hybrid external skeletal fixator construct could be used as a minimally invasive strategy to successfully manage tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures in dogs and may be advantageous in very young medium- to large-breed dogs in which premature closure of the tibial tuberosity apophysis could result in distal translocation of the tibial tuberosity and deformity of the tibial plateau.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched diet, physical rehabilitation, or both on radiographic findings and markers of synovial inflammation in dogs following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and arthroscopic surgery for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease.

DESIGN Randomized, prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 48 dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a dry omega-3 fatty acid and protein–enriched dog food formulated to support joint health (test food [TF]), a dry food formulated for adult canine maintenance (control food [CF]), TF plus rehabilitation, or CF plus rehabilitation after surgery. Synovial fluid prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β concentrations, radiographic osteoarthritis scores, osteotomy site healing, and patellar ligament thickness were assessed at predetermined time points up to 6 months after surgery.

RESULTS Dogs that received CF had significantly higher PGE2 concentrations over time following surgery than did dogs that received TF, regardless of rehabilitation status. Synovial fluid interleukin-1β concentrations did not change over time in any groups. Diet and rehabilitation were both associated with osteoarthritis scores, with significantly lower scores over time for dogs that received TF versus CF and for dogs that underwent rehabilitation versus those that did not. Proportions of dogs with complete osteotomy healing 8 and 24 weeks after surgery were significantly lower for dogs that received TF than for dogs that received CF, regardless of rehabilitation status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that feeding the TF can result in lower synovial fluid PGE2 concentrations and that both the TF and rehabilitation can reduce progression of osteoarthritis in the 6 months following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy; clinical relevance of slower osteotomy healing in dogs fed the TF was unclear.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the optimal energy profile for and to assess the feasibility and efficacy of ultrasonographic and laparoscopic guidance for microwave ablation (MWA) of clinically normal canine ovaries.


44 extirpated ovaries from 22 healthy dogs.


In the first of 2 trials, 13 dogs underwent oophorectomy by routine laparotomy. Extirpated ovaries underwent MWA at 45 W for 60 (n = 11) or 90 (12) seconds; 3 ovaries did not undergo MWA and served as histologic controls. Ovaries were histologically evaluated for cell viability. Ovaries without viable cells were categorized as completely ablated. Histologic results were used to identify the optimal MWA protocol for use in the subsequent trial. In the second trial, the ovaries of 9 dogs underwent MWA at 45 W for 90 seconds in situ. Ultrasonographic guidance for MWA was deemed unfeasible after evaluation of 1 ovary. The remaining 17 ovaries underwent MWA with laparoscopic guidance, after which routine laparoscopic oophorectomy was performed. Completeness of ablation was histologically assessed for all ovaries.


2 ovaries were excluded from the trial 1 analysis because of equivocal cell viability. Six of 11 ovaries and 10 of 10 ovaries that underwent MWA for 60 and 90 seconds, respectively, were completely ablated. In trial 2, laparoscopic-guided MWA resulted in complete ablation for 12 of 17 ovaries. Dissection of the ovarian bursa for MWA probe placement facilitated complete ablation.


Laparoscopic-guided MWA at 45 W for 90 seconds was feasible, safe, and effective for complete ablation of clinically normal ovaries in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research