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  • Author or Editor: Vaidehi V. Paranjape x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a modified passive leg-raising maneuver (PLRM) to predict fluid responsiveness during experimental induction and correction of hypovolemia in isoflurane-anesthetized pigs.

ANIMALS 6 healthy male Landrace pigs.

PROCEDURES Pigs were anesthetized with isoflurane, positioned in dorsal recumbency, and instrumented. Following induction of a neuromuscular blockade, pigs were mechanically ventilated throughout 5 sequential experimental stages during which the blood volume was manipulated so that subjects transitioned from normovolemia (baseline) to hypovolemia (blood volume depletion, 20% and 40%), back to normovolemia, and then to hypervolemia. During each stage, hemodynamic variables were measured before and 3 minutes after a PLRM and 1 minute after the pelvic limbs were returned to their original position. The PLRM consisted of raising the pelvic limbs and caudal portion of the abdomen to a 15° angle relative to the horizontal plane.

RESULTS Hemodynamic variables did not vary in response to the PLRM when pigs were normovolemic or hypervolemic. When pigs were hypovolemic, the PLRM resulted in a significant increase in cardiac output and decrease in plethysomographic variability index and pulse pressure variation. When the pelvic limbs were returned to their original position, cardiac output and pulse pressure variation rapidly returned to their pre-PLRM values, but the plethysomographic variability index did not.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a modified PLRM might be useful for identification of hemodynamically unstable animals that are likely to respond to fluid therapy. Further research is necessary to validate the described PLRM for prediction of fluid responsiveness in clinically ill animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate cardiac output (CO) measurements using transpulmonary ultrasound (TPUD) technology and compare results with those of the gold standard, pulmonary arterial catheter thermodilution (PACTD), in 6 healthy anesthetized pigs during acute hemodynamic changes caused by manipulation of the blood volume.


6 healthy male Landrace pigs.


Over a period of 1 week, pigs were anesthetized with isoflurane, mechanically ventilated, and underwent instrumentation in dorsal recumbency. They were subjected to sequential experimental states during which the blood volume was manipulated so that the animals transitioned from normovolemia to hypovolemia (20% and 40% of blood volume depletion), back to normovolemia (autologous blood transfusion), and then to hypervolemia (following colloid bolus). During each volume state, CO measurements were compared between TPUD and PACTD.


The mean ± SD relative bias between TPUD and PACTD was 7.71% ± 21.2% with limits of agreement –33.9% to 49.3%, indicating TPUD slightly underestimated CO values, compared with values obtained with PACTD. The mean ± SD of the bias between the 2 methods was 0.13 ± 0.5 L/min. Only 5 of 36 (13.9%) TPUD CO measurements had an absolute value of relative bias > 30%. The percentage error calculated for TPUD was 29.4%.


Results suggested that TPUD measurements have acceptable agreement with PACTD measurements. Moreover, TPUD exhibits promising potential in being used interchangeably with PACTD for future hemodynamic research involving swine as species of interest.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research