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We evaluated the efficacy of buparvaquone in eliminating infection with Babesia equi of European origin in carrier horses and in splenectomized horses with experimentally induced acute infection. When administered at the rate of 5 mg/kg of body weight, iv, 4 times at 48-hour intervals, buparvaquone prompted rapid abatement of parasitemia. However, secondary and tertiary recrudescent parasitemias invariably returned with establishment of the carrier state. Buparvaquone, at the dosage evaluated, had transitory therapeutic efficacy against acute B equi infection in splenectomized horses, but was unable alone to clear carrier infection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Serum ionized calcium (ICa) concentration was determined in 141 clinically normal dairy cattle by use of a direct-measuring calcium ion-selective electrode instrument. Mean serum ICa concentration 2 hours after blood withdrawal was 4.59 mg/dl; range varied from 3.79 to 5.25 mg/dl. Regression analysis indicated a high degree of correlation between ICa and serum total calcium concentrations if serum stored at 23 C was analyzed within 12 hours after blood withdrawal.

Abnormal ICa concentration was detected in 19 of 85 dairy cows that were affected with various pathologic conditions. All 19 cows had hypocalcemia (n = 13 with parturient hypocalcemia, 4 with hypomagnesemic tetany, and 2 with renal disease). In all cases, the ICa concentration clearly related to the clinical manifestation of disease and the functional status of the cow's calcium metabolism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a single injection of tulathromycin, compared with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution-treated control calves, for treatment of induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in calves.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—30 Holstein bull calves ranging from 5 to 6 months old and 75 to 200 kg (165 to 440 lb) with no history of Moraxella bovis infections, no history of M bovis vaccination, and negative results for M bovis on 3 consecutive ocular bacterial cultures.

Procedures—Both eyes of each calf were infected with 1 X 1010 colony-forming units of piliated M bovis for 3 consecutive days prior to the trial. On day 0, ocular lesion scores were determined for each calf and the calves were weighed and assigned to a treatment (2.5 mg/kg [1.14 mg/lb] of body weight, SC) or control group according to a stratified random allocation based on weight and lesion score. Eyes were stained with fluorescein and photographed daily to record healing. Eyes were evaluated bacteriologically for M bovis on days 0 to 6 and at 3-day intervals thereafter.

Results—Median time to ulcer resolution in calves treated with tulathromycin was 9.1 days. More than 50% of control calves still had ulcers at the end of the trial (21 days). Moraxella sp was isolated less often from the eyes of treated calves than from the control calves. By day 10, the treated calves had lower ocular lesion scores than control calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of tulathromycin (SC) was an effective treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. The long serum half-life of tulathromycin, along with the results of this trial, suggests that tulathromycin may be a rational choice as a single-injection treatment for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association