Objective—To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a single injection of tulathromycin, compared with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution-treated control calves, for treatment of induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in calves.
Animals—30 Holstein bull calves ranging from 5 to 6 months old and 75 to 200 kg (165 to 440 lb) with no history of Moraxella bovis infections, no history of M bovis vaccination, and negative results for M bovis on 3 consecutive ocular bacterial cultures.
Procedures—Both eyes of each calf were infected with 1 X 1010 colony-forming units of piliated M bovis for 3 consecutive days prior to the trial. On day 0, ocular lesion scores were determined for each calf and the calves were weighed and assigned to a treatment (2.5 mg/kg [1.14 mg/lb] of body weight, SC) or control group according to a stratified random allocation based on weight and lesion score. Eyes were stained with fluorescein and photographed daily to record healing. Eyes were evaluated bacteriologically for M bovis on days 0 to 6 and at 3-day intervals thereafter.
Results—Median time to ulcer resolution in calves treated with tulathromycin was 9.1 days. More than 50% of control calves still had ulcers at the end of the trial (21 days). Moraxella sp was isolated less often from the eyes of treated calves than from the control calves. By day 10, the treated calves had lower ocular lesion scores than control calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of tulathromycin (SC) was an effective treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. The long serum half-life of tulathromycin, along with the results of this trial, suggests that tulathromycin may be a rational choice as a single-injection treatment for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.
OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 commercial florfenicol formulations following IM and SC administration to sheep.
ANIMALS 16 healthy adult mixed-breed sheep.
PROCEDURES In a crossover study, sheep were randomly assigned to receive florfenicol formulation A or B at a single dose of 20 mg/kg, IM, or 40 mg/kg, SC. After a 2-week washout period, each sheep was administered the opposite formulation at the same dose and administration route as the initial formulation. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after each florfenicol administration. Plasma florfenicol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental methods and compared between the 2 formulations at each dose and route of administration.
RESULTS Median maximum plasma concentration, elimination half-life, and area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last quantifiable measurement for florfenicol were 3.76 μg/mL, 13.44 hours, and 24.88 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation A and 7.72 μg/mL, 5.98 hours, and 41.53 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation B following administration of 20 mg of florfenicol/kg, IM, and 2.63 μg/mL, 12.48 hours, and 31.63 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation A and 4.70 μg/mL, 16.60 hours, and 48.32 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation B following administration of 40 mg of florfenicol/kg, SC.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that both formulations achieved plasma florfenicol concentrations expected to be therapeutic for respiratory tract disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella spp at both doses and administration routes evaluated.