A 9-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat (cat 1) and a 10-year-old castrated male Maine Coon cat (cat 2) were presented for recurrent feline lower urinary tract disease after receiving outpatient care from their primary veterinarians.
Physical examination findings for both cats were initially within reference limits. After a short period of hospitalization, both cats developed peritoneal effusion; results of cytologic analysis of a sample of the fluid were consistent with septic peritonitis. During exploratory laparotomy, perforation of the pylorus or proximal portion of the duodenum secondary to ulceration was identified.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Both cats underwent partial duodenectomy, partial gastrectomy (pylorectomy), and gastrojejunostomy (Billroth II procedure). The cats recovered from surgery and returned to a normal quality of life; however, each had mild episodes of anorexia but maintained a stable body weight. Cat 2 required additional surgery for trichobezoar removal 7 weeks later but recovered quickly. At 7 months after trichobezoar removal, cat 2 developed intermittent vomiting, but clinicopathologic, abdominal ultrasonographic, and upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings were within reference limits. At 9 (cat 2) and 13 (cat 1) months after the Billroth II procedure, both cats were reported to be in good general health and without gastrointestinal signs.
In both cats, the Billroth II procedure was technically straightforward and associated with a full recovery and good medium- to long-term quality of life. A Billroth II procedure could be considered for treatment of cats with large mural lesions in the pyloroduodenal region.
Objective—To describe the presence and amount of apoptotic ligamentous cells in different areas of partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (prCCLs) and to compare these findings with apoptosis of ligamentous cells in totally ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments (trCCLs).
Animals—20 dogs with prCCLs and 14 dogs with trCCLs.
Procedures—Dogs with prCCLs or trCCLs were admitted to the veterinary hospital for stifle joint treatment. Biopsy specimens of the intact area of prCCLs (group A) and the ruptured area of prCCLs (group B) as well as specimens from trCCLs (group C) were harvested during arthroscopy. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) detection were used to detect apoptotic ligamentous cells by immunohistochemistry.
Results—No difference was found in the degree of synovitis or osteophytosis between prCCLs and trCCLs. No difference was found in degenerative changes in ligaments between groups A and B. A substantial amount of apoptotic cells could be found in > 90% of all stained slides. A correlation (rs = 0.71) was found between the number of caspase-3-and PARP-positive cells. No significant difference was found in the amount of apoptotic cells among the 3 groups. No significant correlation could be detected between the degree of synovitis and apoptotic cells or osteophyte production and apoptotic cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lack of difference between the 3 groups indicates that apoptosis could be a factor in the internal disease process leading to CCL rupture and is not primarily a consequence of the acute rupture of the ligament.