Objective—To evaluate results of SDS-agarose gel
electrophoresis (AGE) of urinary proteins for use in
defining glomerular and tubulointerstitial derangements,
investigate patterns of high-molecular-weight
(HMW) proteins for differentiating among glomerular
disorders, and assess low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins
as markers of severity of tubulointerstitial disease
Animals—49 dogs with increased serum creatinine
concentrations or abnormal renal protein loss.
Procedure—Urinary proteins were examined by use
of SDS-AGE and differentiated on the basis of molecular
weight. The HMW proteins (≥ 69 kd) were considered
indicative of glomerular origin, whereas LMW
proteins (< 69 kd) were of tubular origin. Renal specimens
were examined by use of light microscopy.
Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were differentiated
by use of the classification for the World
Health Organization and semiquantitative grading,
Results—Sensitivity of SDS-AGE was 100% for
detection of glomerular lesions and 92.6% for tubulointerstitial
lesions; specificity was 40% and 62.5%,
respectively. Although HMW urinary proteins were
not significantly associated with the type of glomerular
lesion, LMW urinary proteins were significantly
associated with the grade of tubulointerstitial damage.
Detection of 12- or 15-kd proteins or both was
highly indicative of a severe tubulointerstitial lesion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SDS-AGE of
urinary proteins in dogs represents a noninvasive test
with high sensitivity for identifying glomerular and
tubulointerstitial damage, but low specificity limits its
validity as a stand-alone test to differentiate between
glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions. The test is
particularly useful for identifying dogs with advanced
tubulointerstitial disease but cannot be used to characterize
glomerular disorders. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:964–971)
Objective—To determine results of cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and impression smears of gastrointestinal tract tumors in dogs and cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—38 dogs and 44 cats with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal tract tumors.
Procedures—Results of cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates (n = 67) or impression smears (31) were compared with the histologic diagnosis, and extent of agreement was classified as complete, partial, none, or undetermined.
Results—For 48 of the 67 (72%) fine-needle aspirates, there was complete or partial agreement between the cytologic and histologic diagnoses. For 12 (18%) aspirates, the extent of agreement could not be determined because the cytologic specimen was considered unsatisfactory. For 29 of the 31 (94%) impression smears, there was complete agreement between the cytologic and histologic diagnoses, and for 2 (6%), there was partial agreement. None of the impression smears were considered unsatisfactory. Proportion of samples with complete agreement and proportion of samples with complete or partial agreement were significantly higher for impression smears than for fine-needle aspirates.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that there was moderate agreement between results of cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates from dogs and cats with gastrointestinal tract neoplasia and the definitive histologic diagnosis. The agreement between results of cytologic examination of impression smears and the histologic diagnosis appeared to be higher.
Objective—To histologically identify glomerular
lesions in dogs infected with Leishmania organisms.
Animals—41 dogs (17 sexually intact males and 14
sexually intact and 10 ovariohysterectomized females)
that had positive results when tested for leishmaniosis
as determined by use of serologic evaluation (indirect
fluorescent antibody test, titers of 1:80 to 1:640)
and direct microscopic identification of the protozoal
Procedure—Urine samples were collected by use of
cystocentesis and examined by qualitative SDSagarose
gel electrophoresis (AGE). All dogs had nonselective
(glomerular) or mixed (glomerular and tubular)
proteinemia. Specimens were obtained from each
dog during ultrasound-assisted renal biopsy and used
for histologic examination. Each specimen was
stained with H&E, periodic acid–Schiff, Goldner's
trichrome, methenamine silver, and Congo Red
stains. Specimens were adequate for evaluation
when they contained at least 5 glomeruli/section,
except for specimens stained with Congo Red in
which 1 glomerulus/section was adequate.
Results—Examination of renal biopsy specimens
revealed various glomerular lesions in all dogs and
interstitial or tubular (or both) lesions in 23 of 41
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glomerular
lesions that develop in dogs during infection with
Leishmania organisms can be classified histologically
as mesangial glomerulonephritis, membranous
glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis,
and focal segmental glomerulonephritis.
Tubulointerstitial histopathologic conditions were not
observed as the primary lesion, despite being evident
in 23 of 41 (55%) dogs. Use of SDS-AGE for qualitative
evaluation of proteinuria and successive collection
of specimens during renal biopsies following
diagnosis of nonselective glomerular proteinuria provides
the possibility for early identification of renal
lesions. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:558–561)
Objective—To determine factors predicting survival in dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—127 dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma evaluated at 4 veterinary hospitals from 2000 to 2009.
Procedures—Records were reviewed to identify dogs with completely staged high-grade multicentric lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. Data collected included signalment, history, hematologic findings, tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Long-term survival was defined as surviving > 2 years after diagnosis. Variables were analyzed for associations with dogs living > 2 years.
Results—Among the 127 enrolled dogs, 13 (10%) survived > 2 years with a median survival time of 914 days (range, 740 to 2,058 days). Survival rates at 3, 4, and 5 years were 4%, 3%, and 1 %, respectively. At diagnosis, 11 of the 13 long-term survivors had a body weight ≥ 10 kg, PCV ≥ 35%, absence of ionized hypercalcemia, centroblastic lymphoma, immunophenotype B, absence of bone marrow involvement, and lymphoma stages I through IV and were not previously treated with corticosteroids. The same combination of factors was present in 26 of 114 (23%) dogs surviving ≤ 2 years, yielding a negative predictive value of 97.8% for long-term survivors. Four of the 6 long-term survivors that died during the study died of another cancer; 3 of them had osteosarcoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Absence of the aforementioned combination of variables at diagnosis may help identify dogs with lymphoma that will not survive > 2 years. Other types of neoplasia, in particular osteosarcoma, may develop in long-term–surviving dogs.
Objective—To describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of dogs with inflammatory carcinoma (IC) and identify patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors associated with overall survival time.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—43 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Records of dogs with a clinical diagnosis of IC that had histologic evidence of dermal lymphatic invasion were reviewed. Data on clinical staging, treatment, toxicoses, response, and survival time were retrieved.
Results—26 (60%) dogs had primary IC and 17 (40%) had secondary IC. Thirty-five (81%) dogs had distant metastases and 2 (5%) had local metastases at the time of initial examination. Six of 29 (21%) dogs had a coagulopathy. Sixteen (37%) dogs did not receive specific treatment for IC, 24 (56%) received medical treatment only, 2 (5%) underwent surgical excision and received medical treatment, and 1 (2%) underwent surgical excision only. Forty-one (95%) dogs had progressive disease, and 2 (5%) had stable disease. Mean survival time for all dogs was 60 days (range, 1 to 300 days). Dogs with a coagulopathy survived a significantly shorter time than did dogs without a coagulopathy (odds ratio, 0.28), and dogs that received medical treatment survived significantly longer than dogs that did not (odds ratio, 2.54).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that mammary IC is a biologically aggressive condition in dogs associated with a guarded prognosis. In addition, results suggested that medical treatment may improve outcome, thereby supporting its use in dogs with IC.
To evaluate the performance of 2 assays for measurement of serum fructosamine (SF) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values in dogs and to compare the usefulness of the 2 glycated proteins for assessment of glycemic control in dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Blood samples from 40 healthy dogs, 13 diabetic dogs, and 23 anemic normoglycemic nondiabetic dogs and results of 200 assessments of glycemic control in 46 diabetic dogs.
Colorimetric and immunoturbidimetric methods were used for measurement of SF and HbA1c values, respectively. Linearity and precision were determined. The usefulness of SF and HbA1c values for assessment of glycemic control was evaluated with a clinical scoring method used as the reference standard. Cutoff values obtained from receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify the percentage of dogs correctly categorized by means of SF and HbA1c values.
Mean intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 3.8% and 2.5%, respectively, for the SF assay, and 1.2% and 1.8%, respectively, for the HbA1c assay. Excellent linearity (R > 0.99) was obtained for both assays. Values for SF and HbA1c were inversely correlated (r = −0.40 and −0.33, respectively) with clinical score and correctly indicated glycemic control in 99 of 200 (50%) and 88 of 200 (44%) assessments, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The SF and HbA1c assays were precise, had good linearity, and appeared to be suitable for routine use in veterinary medicine. However, they performed poorly for classifying glycemic control in diabetic dogs.