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Abstract

Objective—To determine blood flow patterns in the common carotid artery and external jugular vein in cows before and after sedation achieved by administration of xylazine hydrochloride.

Animals—30 clinically normal Swiss Braunvieh cows.

Procedure—A 5.0-MHz sector transducer was used to examine the common carotid artery and external jugular vein before and after cows were sedated by administration of xylazine. Several variables were calculated, including diameter of the blood vessels, blood flow velocity, and flow-time volume.

Results—The common carotid artery before sedation had a maximum systolic velocity of 89 ± 8.5 cm/s, maximum diastolic velocity of 36 ± 6.0 cm/s, mean velocity of 35 ± 5.4 cm/s, and flow-time volume of 28.2 ± 3.48 cm3/s. In all cows, sedation achieved by administration of xylazine resulted in a significant decrease in velocity of arterial blood flow and flowtime volume. The external jugular vein before sedation had a maximum velocity of 65 ± 8.3 cm/s, maximum velocity of retrograde venous blood flow of 20 ± 6.6 cm/s, and flow-time volume of 29.7 ± 5.42 cm3/s. These values decreased significantly after cows were sedated by administration of xylazine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doppler ultrasonography is particularly suitable for evaluation of blood flow patterns in the common carotid artery and external jugular vein of healthy cows. The results reported here provide a basis for use in examination of cows with cardiac and blood vessel disease. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:962–965)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the localization, visible extent (ie, measurement of selected dimensions), and appearance of the liver, caudal vena cava, portal vein, and gallbladder during ultrasonography in healthy goats.

Animals—27 female Saanen goats.

Procedures—A 5.0-MHz linear transducer was used to ultrasonographically examine the localization, visible extent of various dimensions, and appearance of the liver, caudal vena cava, portal vein, and gallbladder from the right side of each goat.

Results—Images of the liver were obtained in all goats. The dorsal margin of the liver extended in a cranioventral to caudodorsal direction parallel to the caudal margin of the lungs. The greatest visible extent of the liver was evident at the seventh and eighth intercostal spaces (mean value, 15.9 cm), and width was evident at the 10th intercostal space (mean value, 5.2 cm). The caudal vena cava had a triangular shape on cross section; the maximum width in cross section, circumference, and surface area ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 cm, 4.8 to 5.2 cm, and 0.8 to 1.1 cm2, respectively. The portal vein was round on cross section (diameter, 0.8 to 1.7 cm) with stellate ramifications into the liver parenchyma. The gallbladder was pear-shaped and variable in size; it extended beyond the ventral margin of the liver to a variable degree depending on the amount of bile.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided information regarding the ultrasonographic appearance of the liver, caudal vena cava, portal vein, and gallbladder in healthy goats; these data may be useful during examination of goats with suspected liver disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate by use of radiography the efficacy of oral administration of magnets in the treatment of traumatic reticuloperitonitis in cows.

Animals—90 cows referred because of indigestion.

Procedure—Radiography of the reticulum was performed. In all cows, radiographic findings revealed a metal foreign body in the reticulum. A magnet was administered orally, and the reticulum was again radiographed to assess the position of the magnet and to determine whether the foreign body was attached to the magnet.

Results—The magnet was observed in the reticulum in 75 cows and in the cranial aspect of the dorsal sac of the rumen in 9 cows; in 6 cows, the magnet was not observed. The foreign body was fully attached to the magnet in 49 cows. In 6 cows, the foreign body was in contact with the magnet but still penetrated the reticulum. In 24 cows, the foreign body did not contact the magnet, and in 11 cows, it was not clear whether the foreign body was attached to the magnet. A foreign body at an angle to the ventral aspect of the reticulum of > 30° was less likely to become attached to a magnet, compared with a foreign body situated horizontally on the ventral aspect of the reticulum. A foreign body with no contact to the ventral aspect of the reticulum or a perforating foreign body was also less likely to become attached to a magnet.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Position of the foreign body within the reticulum greatly influences the efficacy of treatment with a magnet. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:115–120)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) is an acute, highly fatal enterotoxemic disorder in dairy cattle that has been reported during the last few decades. No specific cause of this syndrome has been identified; however, several studies have revealed a strong association between JHS and infection with Clostridium perfringens type A. A common mold, Aspergillus fumigatus, has also been implicated as a potential causative agent in this disease syndrome. Clinical signs of JHS (including sudden decreases in feed intake and milk production, rapid loss of condition, a right-sided ping audible during simultaneous auscultation and percussion of the abdomen, abdominal distension, and melena or bloody feces) usually develop early during lactation when cattle receive rations that are high in energy and low in fiber. Appropriate preventive strategies have not yet been determined, and intensive medical management with or without surgical intervention is rarely successful. The use of commercially available vaccines that are directed against C perfringens types C and D is of questionable efficacy and not likely to be helpful as a preventative measure. This article highlights the potential etiologic and risk factors, describes common clinical signs, outlines relevant diagnostic testing, and summarizes treatment options and their outcomes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine pharmacokinetic variables and to evaluate the influence on clotting times after SC administration of single doses of dalteparin and enoxaparin to horses.

Animals—5 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—The study was designed as a 4-period crossover study. Each horse received a single SC injection of dalteparin (50 and 100 anti-Xa U/kg) and enoxaparin (40 and 80 anti-Xa U/kg). Plasma anti-Xa activities and clotting times were measured, and pharmacokinetic variables were determined. Absolute and relative maximal prolongation of clotting times was calculated, and correlation between plasma anti-Xa activities and clotting times was determined.

Results—The SC administration of each of the doses of the 2 preparations was well tolerated. Time course of the anti-Xa activities could be described in a 1-compartment model. Comparison of low- and high-dose treatments revealed a disproportionate increase of the area under the plasma activity-time curve and prolongation of the terminal half-life, but the increase in maximum plasma activity was proportionate, and peak plasma concentrations corresponded with concentrations recommended in human medicine. There were only mild changes in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), whereas the influence on thrombin time (TT) was greater, dose-dependent, and more variable. A weak-to-moderate correlation between aPTT and plasma anti-Xa activities and a moderate-tostrong correlation between TT and plasma anti-Xa activities were found.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetic and anticoagulatory properties of low-molecular- weight heparins in horses are similar to those found in humans. Once-daily SC administration of dalteparin or enoxaparin may be useful as an anticoagulatory treatment in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:868–873)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe ultrasonographic appearance of the liver, small and large intestines, and omasum in cows with right displacement of the abomasum (RDA) and with abomasal volvulus (AV) and to determine whether RDA and AV can be differentiated on the basis of ultrasonographic findings.

Animals—17 cows with RDA, 9 cows with AV, and 10 healthy control cows.

Procedures—A linear transducer was used to examine the abomasum, liver, omasum, and small and large intestines from the right side.

Results—The liver was imaged less frequently in cows with RDA or AV, compared with control cows. In 9 cows with RDA or AV, the liver could not be imaged. The small intestine was imaged less frequently in cows with RDA or AV than in control cows; in cows with AV, the small intestine could not be imaged in the 8th, 9th, or 10th intercostal space. The large intestine was imaged less frequently in the 11th and 12th intercostal spaces and the cranial region of the flank in cows with RDA or AV. The omasum was also imaged less frequently in the 8th and 9th intercostal spaces in cows with RDA or AV. Cows with RDA or AV could not be differentiated on the basis of ultrasonographic findings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with control cows, cows with RDA and AV had changes in positioning and therefore extent of ultrasonographic imaging of the liver, omasum, and small and large intestines; however, these findings were not useful in differentiating between cows with RDA and AV.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research