A 5-year-old 3.4-kg (7.5-lb) neutered male Munchkin-Minskin crossbred cat was evaluated because of an acute onset of respiratory distress of 12 hours’ duration. The cat had been adopted 2 years ago and, at the time of adoption, had a 2-year history of chronic rhinitis that had been treated with long-term oral administration of antimicrobials and corticosteroids. After adoption, medications were discontinued and the cat underwent surgical turbinate reduction and periodic nasal flushes that were reportedly well tolerated. The day prior to hospital admission, the cat had recovered uneventfully from a nasal flush procedure performed under general anesthesia; however, the
A 12-year-old 4.3-kg (9.5-lb) spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for an acute episode of collapse and dyspnea. The cat had been previously healthy with no known underlying medical conditions and historically had negative serologic test results for FeLV and FIV infections.
On physical examination, the cat was open-mouth breathing with increased abdominal effort and short, shallow respirations. Thoracic auscultation revealed muffled heart sounds and dull bronchovesicular sounds bilaterally. The cat was tachycardic with pale mucous membranes and weak femoral pulses.
Evaluation of a fluid sample obtained by diagnostic thoracocentesis revealed a nonclotting hemorrhagic effusion with a PCV
A 3-year-old 30-kg (66-lb) spayed female German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of a 4-month history of progressive inappetence, weight loss (decrease of 6.8 kg [15 lb]), lethargy, and diarrhea. On physical examination, the dog was febrile (40.8°C [105.5°F]) and of poor body condition (body condition score, 3 [scale from 1 to 9]). On abdominal palpation, signs of pain were elicited and a large, firm mass in the cranial portion of the abdomen was detected. The dog was mildly thrombocytopenic (171,000 platelets/μL; reference range, 190,000 to 468,000 platelets/μL) and mildly anemic (PCV, 36%; reference range, 39% to 58%) and
An 8-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for severe trauma after being hit by a car. Injuries included subluxation at T12-13, thoracic trauma including a mild pneumothorax and pulmonary contusions, multiple lacerations, and a right brachial plexus avulsion. Additional thoracic radiographic views were obtained 11 days after the initial injury to evaluate placement of an esophageal feeding tube (Figure 1).
Right lateral and ventrodorsal radiographic views of the thorax of a dog that had been hit by a car 11 days earlier.
Determine whether additional imaging studies are required, or make your diagnosis from
To use duplex Doppler ultrasonography to compare gastrointestinal activity in healthy sedated versus nonsedated rabbits and to evaluate agreement between B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) ultrasonographic measurements.
10 healthy client-owned rabbits brought for routine physical examination and 11 brought for routine ovariohysterectomy or castration.
Duplex Doppler ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract was performed once for the 10 rabbits that underwent physical examination and twice (before and after presurgical sedation) for the 11 rabbits that underwent routine ovariohysterectomy or castration. Mean number of peristaltic contractions during a 30-second period was determined for the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, cecum, and colon from B-mode and PWD ultrasonographic images that had been video recorded. Findings for the duodenum and jejunum were compared between B-mode and PWD ultrasonography and between sedated and nonsedated rabbits.
Duodenal and jejunal segments had measurable peristaltic waves; however, the stomach, cecum, and colon had no consistent measurable activity. B-mode and PWD ultrasonographic measurements for the duodenum and jejunum had high agreement. No significant difference was identified between nonsedated and sedated rabbits in mean number of peristaltic contractions of the duodenum or jejunum.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that both B-mode and PWD ultrasonography of the duodenum and jejunum may be suitable for noninvasive evaluation of small intestinal motility in rabbits and that the sedation protocol used in this study had no impact on measured peristaltic values.
Objective—To determine the sensitivity, positive predictive value, and interobserver variability of CT in the detection of bullae associated with spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—19 dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax caused by rupture of bullae.
Procedures—Dogs that had CT for spontaneous pneumothorax caused by rupture of bullae confirmed at surgery (median sternotomy) or necropsy were included. Patient signalment, CT protocols, and bulla location, size, and number were obtained from the medical records. Computed tomographic images were reviewed by 3 board-certified radiologists who reported on the location, size, and number of bullae as well as the subjective severity of pneumothorax.
Results—Sensitivities of the 3 readers for bulla detection were 42.3%, 57.7%, and 57.7%, with positive predictive values of 52.4%, 14.2%, and 8.4%, respectively, with the latter 2 readers having a high rate of false-positive diagnoses. There was good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.640) for correct identification of bullae. Increasing size of the bulla was significantly associated with a correct CT diagnosis in 1 reader but not in the other 2 readers. Correct diagnosis was not associated with slice thickness, ventilation protocol, or degree of pneumothorax.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sensitivity and positive predictive value of CT for bulla detection were low. Results suggested that CT is potentially an ineffective preoperative diagnostic technique in dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax caused by bulla rupture because lesions can be missed or incorrectly diagnosed. Bulla size may affect visibility on CT.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of obesity on pulmonary function in healthy adult dogs.
Animals—36 Retrievers without cardiopulmonary disease.
Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of body condition score (1 through 9): nonobese (score, 4.5 to 5.5), moderately obese (score, 6.0 to 6.5), and markedly obese (score, 7.0 to 9.0). Pulmonary function tests performed in conscious dogs included spirometry and measurement of inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance (Raw) and specific Raw (sRaw) during normal breathing and during hyperpnea via head-out whole-body plethysmography. Functional residual capacity (FRC; measured by use of helium dilution), diffusion capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and arterial blood gas variables (PaO2, PaCO2, and alveolar-arterial gradient) were assessed.
Results—During normal breathing, body condition score did not influence airway function, DLCO, or arterial blood gas variables. During hyperpnea, expiratory sRaw was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs than nonobese dogs and Raw was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs, compared with nonobese and moderately obese dogs. Although not significantly different, markedly obese dogs had a somewhat lower FRC, compared with other dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, obesity appeared to cause airflow limitation during the expiratory phase of breathing, but this was only evident during hyperpnea. This suggests that flow limitation is dynamic and likely occurs in the distal (rather than proximal) portions of the airways. Further studies are warranted to localize the flow-limited segment and understand whether obesity is linked to exercise intolerance via airway dys-function in dogs.