To compare analgesic efficacy and fetal effects between transdermal administration of fentanyl and IM administration of buprenorphine in pregnant sheep.
12 healthy pregnant ewes.
Before study initiation, each ewe was confirmed pregnant with a single fetus between 113 and 117 days of gestation. Ewes were randomly assigned to receive buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg, IM, q 8 h for 48 hours beginning 1 hour before anesthesia induction; n = 6) or fentanyl (a combination of transdermal fentanyl patches sufficient to deliver a dose of 2 μg of fentanyl/kg/h applied between the dorsal borders of the scapulae 24 hours before anesthesia induction; 6). Ewes were anesthetized and underwent a surgical procedure to instrument the fetus with an arterial catheter and place a catheter in utero for collection of amniotic fluid samples. Physiologic variables and behavioral changes indicative of pain were assessed, and amniotic fluid and blood samples from ewes and fetuses were collected for determination of drug concentrations at predetermined times.
Both protocols provided acceptable postoperative analgesia with no adverse effects observed in the ewes or fetuses. Compared with the buprenorphine protocol, the fentanyl protocol induced more profound analgesia, decreased the requirement for isoflurane during surgery, and was associated with a shorter anesthesia recovery time. Fetal indices did not differ significantly between the 2 analgesic protocols.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that both protocols provided acceptable analgesia. However, the fentanyl protocol was superior in regard to the extent of analgesia induced, inhalant-sparing effects, and anesthesia recovery time.
To determine oxytetracycline concentrations in plasma and in fluid from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (CPT)-inoculated tissue chambers (used as experimental abscess models) and uninoculated (control) tissue chambers in sheep after IM or local administration of the drug and to investigate whether CPT growth was reduced or eliminated by these treatments.
10 clinically normal female sheep.
Sterile tissue chambers were surgically implanted in both paralumbar fossae of each sheep; ≥ 2 weeks later (day −6), 1 randomly selected chamber was inoculated with CPT, and the opposite chamber was injected with sterile growth medium. Sheep received oxytetracycline IM (n = 5) or by percutaneous injection into CPT-inoculated (4) or uninoculated (1) chambers on day 0. Tissue fluid from each chamber and venous blood samples for plasma collection were obtained at predetermined times over 6 days for bacterial counts (tissue chambers) and analysis of oxytetracycline concentrations (tissue chambers and plasma). Sheep were euthanized on day 6. Regional lymph nodes were collected bilaterally from each sheep for culture.
Measurable concentrations of oxytetracycline were present in each chamber throughout the study, regardless of administration route or presence of CPT. No CPT growth was detected after the 48-hour time point in inoculated chambers injected with oxytetracycline; however, CPT was isolated from all inoculated chambers throughout the study after IM drug administration. One regional lymph node (ipsilateral to a CPT-inoculated, oxytetracycline-injected chamber with no CPT growth after 48 hours) was culture positive for CPT.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Intralesional administration of oxytetracycline may eliminate growth of CPT locally, but complete elimination of the organism remains difficult.