To describe clinical outcomes in cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).
14 client-owned cats.
Medical records of cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with SRS (17 Gy) between August 2013 and November 2019 at a single institution were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate overall survival time.
Acute adverse effects of SRS included somnolence (n = 2) and alopecia (1). Delayed adverse effects of SRS included unspecified neurologic complications (n = 1; 481 days), seizures (1; 1,541 days), and hypothyroidism (1; 64 days). Exogenous insulin requirements decreased in 10 of the 14 cats, with a median time to lowest insulin dose of 399 days (range, 42 to 879 days). Complete diabetic remission was achieved in 3 cats. The median overall survival time was 741 days (95% CI, 353 to 1,129 days). Six cats were still alive at the end of the study period, with a median follow-up time of 725 days. In 7 of the 8 cats that had died, death was presumptively attributed to acromegaly owing to continued insulin resistance, organ failure, or altered neurologic status.
The SRS protocol was well tolerated and associated with survival times similar to those reported previously. Most cats had decreased exogenous insulin requirements after SRS. Latency to an endocrine response was highly variable, emphasizing the need for careful ongoing diabetic monitoring of acromegalic cats after pituitary gland irradiation.
To evaluate potential prognostic indicators for local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival time in dogs with incompletely excised high-grade soft tissue sarcomas (HGSTSs), as defined by a mitotic index ≥ 9, that underwent definitive-intent radiation treatment (RT; ≥ 48 Gy total dose) with or without adjuvant chemotherapy.
41 client-owned dogs with HGSTSs treated with surgical resection followed by definitive-intent RT between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016.
Medical records were reviewed retrospectively, and data were collected. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the overall survival time (OST) of dogs and time to progression (TTP) of disease, starting from the first day of RT. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the impact of results for several variables on OST and TTP.
The median OST was 981 days, with 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of 85%, 43%, and 18%, respectively. The median TTP was not reached; however, the mean TTP was 1,581 days. Ten of the 41 (24%) dogs developed metastasis, and 8 (20%) developed local recurrence. Sixteen of the 41 dogs received chemotherapy. The hazard of disease progression over the study period increased as the mitotic index (hazard ratio [HR], 1.115) or duration of RT (HR, 1.427) increased. The hazard of death over the study period increased as the RT duration (HR, 1.372) or surgical scar length (HR, 1.272) increased.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with improved survival time in dogs of the present study, results indicated that improved OST and TTP could be achieved through strict adherence to the prescribed irradiation schedule and avoidance of unnecessary prolongation of the course of RT.
OBJECTIVE To compare percentages of mast cells in lymph node (LN) aspirate samples from clinically normal dogs, dogs with allergic dermatologic disease (ADD), and dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs).
DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 20 healthy dogs (group 1), 20 dogs with ADD (group 2), and 20 dogs with an MCT on the head or limbs (group 3).
PROCEDURES LN aspirate samples were obtained from easily accessible LNs in group 1, affected skin regions in group 2, and the likely draining LN or LNs of the MCT in group 3; the percentage of mast cells was manually determined for each LN. For group 3, LNs were cytologically categorized with a modified version of a published metastasis categorization scheme.
RESULTS Median (range) percentage of mast cells in aspirate samples was 0% (0% to 0.1%) for group 1, 0.05% (0% to 0.55%) for group 2, and 0.4% (0% to 77.4%) for group 3. In group 3, 16 LNs (13 dogs) were palpably normal in size; 6 of these had evidence of possible or certain metastasis. Seven LNs (7 dogs) in group 3 were palpably enlarged, and 5 of these had evidence of certain metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided evidence to support the use of a uniform cytologic grading system to further define nodal metastasis in dogs with MCTs as well as estimates of the percentage of mast cells in LN aspirate samples for healthy dogs and dogs with ADD. Palpably normal LNs in dogs with cutaneous MCT may contain metastasis.
Objective—To compare clinical outcome of dogs
with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in the
inguinal or perineal region with outcome for dogs with
MCTs in other cutaneous locations.
Animals—37 dogs with MCTs in the inguinal or perineal
region and 87 dogs with MCTs in other cutaneous
Procedure—Information obtained from the medical
records included sex, breed, age, histologic grade of
all tumors, number and location of all tumors, tumor
size (ie, diameter of the tumor), completeness of surgical
excision, treatments administered in addition to
surgery, and outcome. In all dogs, the primary treatment
consisted of surgical excision.
Results—Disease-free interval and survival time for
dogs with MCTs in the inguinal or perineal region were
not significantly different from values for dogs with
MCTs in other cutaneous locations. Dogs with incompletely
excised tumors, dogs with grade III tumors, and
dogs that received systemic treatment were 2, 2.5,
and 4 times as likely, respectively, to have a relapse.
Factors significantly associated with a shorter survival
time were age > 8 years, metastatic disease at the
time of initial diagnosis, and tumor relapse.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the
present study suggest that dogs with MCTs in the
inguinal or perineal region do not have a worse prognosis
in regard to disease-free interval or survival time
than do dogs with MCTs in other cutaneous locations.
Treatment recommendations for dogs with cutaneous
MCTs should be based on confirmed predictors of biological
behavior, such as histologic grade and clinical
stage. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1368–1374)
Objective—To determine outcome of dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma treated with various multiagent, doxorubicin-based chemotherapeutic protocols and identify factors associated with prognosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—18 dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, treatment, and outcome.
Results—8 dogs had a complete remission (CR), with a median remission duration of 120 days. Dogs with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or a combination of hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia were less likely to achieve a CR. Overall median survival time (MST) was 63 days (range, 2 to 402 days). In a multivariate analysis, response to treatment and serum albumin concentration were associated with MST. Dogs that did not achieve a CR had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs that did achieve a CR (13 vs 283 days, respectively). Dogs with serum albumin concentration < 2.5 g/dL at the time treatment was initiated had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs with serum albumin concentration within reference limits (10 vs 128 days, respectively). There was also a positive correlation between serum albumin concentration and survival time (r = 0.74).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with primary hepatic lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy had a poor prognosis, with a low response rate. Dogs that responded to treatment had a better prognosis, and dogs with hypoalbuminemia had a poorer prognosis.
To describe oncologic outcomes following administration of a uniform stereotactic radiotherapy protocol (SRT; 10 Gy X 3) for canine intranasal tumors and to identify whether any clinical or dosimetric factors were predictive of event-free or overall survival time (EFST or OST).
In this single-institution retrospective study, the medical records database was searched for canine nonlymphomatous intranasal tumors treated with 10 Gy X 3 SRT between August 2013 and November 2020. Findings regarding adverse effects and outcomes were analyzed overall, for dogs grouped on the basis of life stage (mature adult, senior, or end of life), and for treatment-related or tumor-related variables to identify potential predictors of outcome.
After SRT, most dogs clinically improved with minimal acute radiotoxicity. The median EFST was 237 days; median OST was 542 days. Receipt of other tumor-directed therapies before or after SRT was associated with improved EFST in senior dogs (hazard ratio [HR], 0.416) and improved OST in mature adult (HR, 0.241) and senior dogs (HR, 0.348). In senior dogs, administration of higher near-minimum radiation doses was associated with improved EFST (HR, 0.686) and OST (HR, 0.743). In senior dogs, chondrosarcoma was associated with shorter OST (HR, 7.232), and in dogs at end of life, having a squamous cell or transitional carcinoma was associated with worse EFST (HR, 6.462).
This SRT protocol results in improved quality of life and prolonged OST for dogs of all life stages. Radiation protocol optimization or use of multimodal therapy may further improve outcomes.
Objective—To evaluate factors associated with survival in dogs with nasal carcinomas that did not receive treatment or received only palliative treatment.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—139 dogs with histologically confirmed nasal carcinomas.
Procedures—Medical records, computed tomography images, and biopsy specimens of nasal carcinomas were reviewed. Only dogs that were not treated with radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy and that survived ≥ 7 days from the date of diagnosis were included. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival time. Factors potentially associated with survival were compared by use of log-rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariable survival analysis was performed by use of the Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Results—Overall median survival time was 95 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 73 to 113 days; range, 7 to 1,114 days). In dogs with epistaxis, the hazard of dying was 2.3 times that of dogs that did not have epistaxis. Median survival time of 107 dogs with epistaxis was 88 days (95% CI, 65 to 106 days) and that of 32 dogs without epistaxis was 224 days (95% CI, 54 to 467 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis of dogs with untreated nasal carcinomas is poor. Treatment strategies to improve outcome should be pursued.