Objective—To evaluate bronchial morphology endoscopically in rabbits and develop a valid nomenclature for the endobronchial branching pattern.
Animals—10 mature New Zealand White rabbits.
Procedures—Flexible bronchoscopy was performed in rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane via nasal mask. Airways were systematically evaluated from the larynx to the terminal branches accessible with a 2.5-mm–outer diameter flexible endoscope. Airway branching patterns were identified and assessed for variation among subjects.
Results—Airways of all rabbits were readily examined with the 2.5-mm flexible endoscope. Laryngeal structure and function were normal in each rabbit, and airway branching patterns in all rabbits evaluated were identical. At the carina, branching into left and right principal bronchi was evident. The left principal bronchus divided immediately into the left cranial and left caudal lobar bronchi. The left cranial lobe bronchus further divided into dorsal and ventral segmental bronchi. The left caudal lobe bronchus gave rise to branches originating dorsally, ventrally, and medially before continuing caudally. The right principal bronchus divided into the right cranial, right middle, and accessory lobar bronchi and continued distally as the right caudal lobar bronchus. The right cranial lobe bronchus also divided into dorsal and ventral segmental bronchi, and the right caudal lobe bronchus had branches that originated dorsally, ventrally, and medially.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Definition of a standard nomenclature for airway branching in rabbits will allow precise localization of disease in clinical cases and accurate collection of airway samples in clinical and scientific evaluations.
Objective—To determine the mineral composition of calculi, anatomic locations of the calculi, and findings of urinalysis and bacteriologic culture of urine and calculi in guinea pigs with urolithiasis.
Animals—127 guinea pigs.
Procedures—Records of urinary calculi that had been submitted to the University of California Stone Laboratory from 1985 through 2003 were reviewed. In addition, submissions of urinary calculi for evaluation by the laboratory were prospectively solicited from 2004 through 2007. Prospectively obtained calculi were accompanied by a urine sample for urinalysis and bacteriologic culture and a completed questionnaire. All calculi were analyzed by use of polarized light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A subset of calculi was examined by means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD).
Results—83% (43/52) of calculi from the laboratory database and 93% (70/75) of calculi that were prospectively solicited were composed of 100% calcium carbonate. Analysis via XRD confirmed that 5 of 6 calculi from a subset that had the greatest gross morphologic variation were composed of 100% calcite. Although many guinea pigs had received anti-microbials before bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed, Corynebacterium renale was isolated from 5 urine samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrary to findings of other studies, urinary calculi analyzed for the present study were most commonly composed of 100% calcium carbonate, and infrared spectroscopy or XRD was necessary to differentiate this mineral from others. Treatments, including diet and husbandry practices, should be developed to help prevent development of calcium carbonate calculi in guinea pigs.
Objective—To determine results of diagnostic testing, including detection of nasal or frontal sinus fungal plaques, in dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—46 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on computed tomographic findings; rhinoscopic findings, including whether fungal plaques were seen in the nasal cavity; results of frontal sinus trephination and sinuscopy, including whether fungal plaques were seen in the frontal sinus; and results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens.
Results—In 38 (83%) dogs, fungal plaques were seen in the nasal cavity during rhinoscopy, whereas in the remaining 8 (17%), fungal plaques were not seen in the nasal cavity but were seen in the frontal sinus. Duration of clinical signs, proportions of dogs in which the referring veterinarian had performed a nasal examination prior to referral, proportions of dogs with computed tomographic evidence of nasal cavity cavitation or sinus involvement, and proportions of dogs with rhinoscopic evidence of destructive rhinitis were not significantly different between dogs with nasal fungal plaques and dogs with fungal plaques only in the frontal sinus.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm that frontal sinus involvement is common in dogs with nasal aspergillosis and suggest that frontal sinus trephination and sinuscopy may aid in the diagnosis of aspergillosis in dogs, particularly dogs with rhinoscopic evidence of destructive rhinitis and computed tomographic evidence of sinus involvement that lack detectable fungal plaques in the nasal cavity.
OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of buprenorphine after IV and oral transmucosal (OTM) administration in guinea pigs.
ANIMALS 14 male guinea pigs (6 adults for preliminary experiment; eight 8 to 11-week-old animals for primary study).
PROCEDURES A preliminary experiment was conducted to determine an appropriate buprenorphine dose. In the primary study, buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg) was administered IV or OTM, and blood samples were obtained. The pH of the oral cavity was measured before OTM administration. Sedation was scored for 6 hours on a scale of 0 to 3 (0 = no sedation and 3 = heavy sedation). After a 7-day washout period, procedures were repeated in a crossover manner. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was quantified, and data were analyzed with a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach.
RESULTS Mean peak plasma buprenorphine concentrations were 46.7 and 2.4 ng/mL after IV and OTM administration, respectively. Mean time to maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was 1.5 and 71.2 minutes, and mean terminal half-life was 184.9 and 173.0 minutes for IV and OTM administration, respectively. There was a range of sedation effects (0 to 2) for both routes of administration, which resolved within the 6-hour time frame.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters for this study, buprenorphine at 0.2 mg/kg may be administered IV every 7 hours or OTM every 4 hours to maintain a target plasma concentration of 1 ng/mL. Further studies are needed to evaluate administration of multiple doses and sedative effects in guinea pigs with signs of pain.
Objective—To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive and sedative effects and duration of action of tramadol hydrochloride after oral administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
Animals—12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels.
Procedures—Tramadol (5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) and a control suspension were administered orally in a masked randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 hours after treatment. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus test.
Results—The lowest dose of tramadol evaluated (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the thermal foot withdrawal thresholds for up to 1.5 hours after administration, compared with control treatment values, and for up to 9 hours after administration, compared with baseline values. Tramadol at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg significantly increased thermal thresholds at 0.5 hours after administration, compared with control treatment values, and up to 3 hours after administration, compared with baseline values. No significant differences in agitation-sedation scores were detected between tramadol and control treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated oral administration of 5 mg of tramadol/kg significantly increased thermal nociception thresholds for kestrels for 1.5 hours, compared with a control treatment, and 9 hours, compared with baseline values; higher doses resulted in less pronounced antinociceptive effects. Additional studies with other types of stimulation, formulations, dosages, routes of administration, and testing times would be needed to fully evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of tramadol in kestrels and other avian species.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IV and IM administration in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
Animals—12 healthy adult American kestrels.
Procedures—A single dose of hydromorphone (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM (pectoral muscles) and IV (right jugular vein); the time between IM and IV administration experiments was 1 month. Blood samples were collected at 5 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours (n = 4 birds); 0.25, 1.5, and 9 hours (4); and 0.5, 2, and 6 hours (4) after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were determined by means of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a noncompartmental model. Mean plasma hydromorphone concentration for each time was determined with naïve averaged pharmacokinetic analysis.
Results—Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were detectable in 2 and 3 birds at 6 hours after IM and IV administration, respectively, but not at 9 hours after administration. The fraction of the hydromorphone dose absorbed after IM administration was 0.75. The maximum observed plasma concentration was 112.1 ng/mL (5 minutes after administration). The terminal half-life was 1.25 and 1.26 hours after IV and IM administration, respectively.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.
Objective—To evaluate the antinociceptive and sedative effects and duration of action of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
Animals—11 healthy 2-year-old American kestrels.
Procedures—Hydromorphone (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were administered IM to kestrels in a masked randomized complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal test.
Results—Hydromorphone at 0.6 mg/kg, IM, significantly increased the thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with the response after administration of saline solution, for up to 3 hours, and hydromorphone at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, significantly increased withdrawal responses for up to 6 hours, compared with baseline values. No significant differences in mean sedation-agitation scores were detected between hydromorphone and saline solution treatments; however, appreciable sedation was detected in 4 birds when administered 0.6 mg of hydromorphone/kg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydromorphone at the doses evaluated significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for American kestrels for 3 to 6 hours. Additional studies with other types of stimulation, formulations, dosages, routes of administration, and testing times are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic and adverse effects of hydromorphone in kestrels and other avian species and the use of hydromorphone in clinical settings.
Objective—To evaluate antinociceptive effects and pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).
Animals—Fifteen 2- to 3-year-old American kestrels (6 males and 9 females).
Procedures—Butorphanol (1, 3, and 6 mg/kg) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered IM to birds in a crossover experimental design. Agitation-sedation scores and foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus were determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment. For the pharmacokinetic analysis, butorphanol (6 mg/kg, IM) was administered in the pectoral muscles of each of 12 birds.
Results—In male kestrels, butorphanol did not significantly increase thermal thresholds for foot withdrawal, compared with results for saline solution administration. However, at 1.5 hours after administration of 6 mg of butorphanol/kg, the thermal threshold was significantly decreased, compared with the baseline value. Foot withdrawal threshold for female kestrels after butorphanol administration did not differ significantly from that after saline solution administration. However, compared with the baseline value, withdrawal threshold was significantly increased for 1 mg/kg at 0.5 and 6 hours, 3 mg/kg at 6 hours, and 6 mg/kg at 3 hours. There were no significant differences in mean sedation-agitation scores, except for males at 1.5 hours after administration of 6 mg/kg.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Butorphanol did not cause thermal antinociception suggestive of analgesia in American kestrels. Sex-dependent responses were identified. Further studies are needed to evaluate the analgesic effects of butorphanol in raptors.
Objective—To determine cytologic and microbiologic findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and SpO2 values obtained during BAL in healthy rabbits.
Procedures—Bronchoscopic BAL of left and right caudal lobar bronchi (LB2 and RB4) was performed with 3 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution; SpO2 was measured before, during, and after BAL. Percentage fluid recovered, total leukocyte counts, and differential cell counts were determined. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial, mycoplasmal, and fungal cultures were performed from combined LB2 and RB4 samples.
Results—Mean ± SD percentage fluid volumes recovered from LB2 and RB4 were 53 ± 13% and 63 ± 13%, respectively. Mean ± SD total leukocyte counts from LB2 and RB4 were 422 ± 199 cells/μL and 378 ± 97 cells/μL, respectively. Macrophages were most frequently identified. There were no significant differences in volumes retrieved, total leukocyte counts, or differential cell percentages between LB2 and RB4. Microbial culture results were negative for 3 rabbits and positive for mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth in 6 and 2 rabbits, respectively. The SpO2 was ≥ 95% in 7 of 9 rabbits after anesthetic induction, < 95% in 5 of 6 rabbits 1 minute after BAL, and ≥ 95% in 5 of 9 rabbits and > 90% in 4 of 9 rabbits 3 minutes after BAL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bronchoscopic BAL with 3 mL of saline solution provided adequate fluid recovery for microbiologic and cytologic examination from the caudal lung lobes. Transient low SpO2 was detected immediately after BAL.
To identify an oral dose of grapiprant for red-tailed hawks (RTHAs; Buteo jamaicensis) that would achieve a plasma concentration > 164 ng/mL, which is considered therapeutic for dogs with osteoarthritis.
6 healthy adult RTHAs.
A preliminary study, in which grapiprant (4 mg/kg [n = 2], 11 mg/kg , or 45 mg/kg ) was delivered into the crop of RTHAs from which food had been withheld for 24 hours, was performed to obtained pharmacokinetic data for use with modeling software to simulate results for grapiprant doses of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg. Simulation results directed our selection of the grapiprant dose administered to the RTHAs in a single-dose study. Plasma grapiprant concentration, body weight, and gastrointestinal signs of RTHAs were monitored.
On the basis of results from the preliminary study and simulations, a grapiprant dose of 30 mg/kg was used in the single-dose study. The geometric mean maximum observed plasma concentration of grapiprant was 3,184 ng/mL, time to maximum plasma grapiprant concentration was 2.0 hours, and the harmonic mean terminal half-life was 17.1 hours. No substantial adverse effects were observed.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although the single dose of grapiprant (30 mg/kg) delivered into the crop achieved plasma concentrations > 164 ng/mL in the RTHAs, it was unknown whether this concentration would be therapeutic for birds. Further research that incorporates multidose assessments, safety monitoring, and pharmacodynamic data collection is warranted on the use of grapiprant in RTHAs from which food was withheld versus not withheld.