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  • Author or Editor: Tracy L. Clippinger x
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Objective—To establish reference values for electrodiagnostic evaluation of peripheral nerve function in birds.

Animals—6 rheas and 6 barred owls.

Procedure—Birds were anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane in oxygen. Using a computer-based electromyograph system and needle electrodes for stimulation and recording, electromyography (EMG) was performed on the pectoral, biceps brachialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, and evoked EMG was performed on the tibial and ulnar nerves. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was calculated. Repetitive stimulation was performed on these 2 nerves. Late F waves were recorded for each nerve, when possible.

Results—Activity was evident during insertion of the electrodes, but muscles tested were electrically quiescent after spontaneous EMG. Motor nerve conduction velocity was faster in the tibial nerve than ulnar nerve but did not differ significantly between species. Mean ± SEM MNCV was 132.3 ±± 7.8 m/s for the tibial nerve and 59.7 ± 7.8 m/s for the ulnar nerve. A significant difference was not observed in responses at the fourth or ninth stimulation during repetitive stimulation. Subsequent to the initial stimulation, amplitudes were ± 22.7% of the initial motor potential amplitude. Recorded F waves were inconsistent, which may have been associated with technique.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference range (mean ± 2 SEM) for MNCV was 34.1 to 75.3 m/s for the ulnar nerve and 116.7 to 147.9 m/s for the tibial nerve in barred owls and rheas. After repetitive stimulation, motor potential amplitudes may be ± 22.7% of the initial amplitude response. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:469–472)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

  • A thymoma may not be clinically evident unless it is large enough to cause abnormal respiratory tract signs or a paraneoplastic syndrome develops.

  • Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration is a safe, minimally invasive method for diagnosis of masses in the cranial portion of the mediastinum. Needle or excisional biopsy may be required to definitively distinguish or confirm a diagnosis of thymoma or lymphoma.

  • A minimally invasive thymoma may be surgically excised via median sternotomy in rabbits.

  • Neurofibrosarcoma is a locally invasive tumor with a tendency to recur unless excision has been wide and complete, and adjunctive radiotherapy or chemotherapy is administered.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association