Objective—To compare the effects of intra-articular (IA) versus IV administration of morphine on local and systemic inflammatory responses in horses with experimentally induced acute synovitis.
Procedures—Each horse received the following 2 treatments 4 hours after synovitis was induced: IA administration of morphine (0.05 mg/kg) with IV administration of 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution/100 kg, and IA administration of 1 mL of saline solution/100 kg with IV administration of morphine (0.05 mg/kg). Treatments were administered in randomized order with a washout period of 3 weeks between treatments. Before each treatment, aseptic synovitis was induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide into a radiocarpal joint. For the second treatment, the contralateral radiocarpal joint was selected. Joint swelling and skin temperature over the treated joints were recorded. Clinical examinations were performed, and blood WBC count, serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration, serum cortisol concentration, synovial fluid WBC count, synovial fluid total protein (TP) concentration, and synovial fluid SAA concentration were measured before and repeatedly during each of the two 168-hour study periods. Data were analyzed by use of ANOVA with repeated measures.
Results—IA administration of morphine resulted in significantly less joint swelling and lower synovial fluid TP and serum and synovial fluid SAA concentrations, and blood WBC count than did IV administration of morphine.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IA administration of morphine exerted anti-inflammatory properties in horses with experimentally induced acute synovitis, supporting its use as a part of a balanced analgesic protocol.
Objective—To compare and correlate B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics with histopathologic findings of benign and malignant superficial lymph nodes in dogs.
Study Population—50 superficial lymph nodes that were normal, abnormally large on physical examination, or represented regional lymph nodes draining an area of suspected primary malignancy in 30 dogs.
Procedures—Before excision, lymph nodes were evaluated via B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography to assess size, echogenicity, presence of a hilus, acoustic transmission, and vascular flow. Formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of excised lymph nodes were stained with H&E and examined for the presence and extent of necrosis, fibrosis, fat, metastases, and tissue heterogeneity. To assess vascularity, the number and distribution of vessels stained by the Verhoeff van Gieson technique were recorded.
Results—In superficial lymph nodes, a varied echogenicity corresponded to tissue heterogeneity. The ultrasonographic detection of a hilus was associated with the presence of fibrous tissue, fat, or both in the hilar region. Acoustic enhancement corresponded to presence of areas of intranodal necrosis. There was significant correlation between both the distribution and the number of vessels detected via ultrasonography and that detected by histopathology. The amount of flow estimated via ultrasonography was typically higher than that estimated via histologic examination.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that histopathologic changes in canine lymph nodes have associated ultrasonographic changes and suggest that lymph node ultrasonography has an important role in the evaluation of lymph nodes in dogs in general and in dogs with neoplastic disease in particular.
Objective—To compare and correlate B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics with the histologic findings of benign and malignant mammary tumors in dogs.
Study Population—49 mammary tumors in 26 dogs.
Procedures—Before excision, tumors were evaluated via B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography to assess size, echogenicity, echopattern, acoustic transmission, invasiveness, and vascularity. Paraffinembedded microsections of the tumors were stained with H&E and examined for presence of necrosis, cysts, cartilage, bone, mineralization, invasion of surrounding tissue, and tissue heterogeneity. To assess vascularity, the number and distribution of vessels that were stained by the Verhoeff van Gieson technique were recorded.
Results—Tumor echogenicity and echopattern on ultrasonographic images correlated with tissue heterogeneity detected histologically. Acoustic enhancement was correlated with the presence of necrotic or cystic areas. Tumor invasion into surrounding tissues as determined ultrasonographically did not correlate with the histologic findings. There was a significant correlation between the number of detected vessels and distribution of flow within the tumors determined via ultrasonographic and histologic examinations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In canine mammary tumors, ultrasonographic characteristics appear to be correlated with histopathologic changes. Data suggest that ultrasonography may have an important role in the evaluation of mammary tumors in dogs, particularly in the evaluation of tissue composition and tumor vascularity.