Case Description—A 6-month-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of acute lethargy.
Clinical Findings—Severe nonregenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia were identified. Cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate revealed selective erythroid and mega-karyocytic aplasia and a high number of apparently normal small lymphocytes. Infectious agents implicated in feline hematologic disorders were excluded on the basis of serologic tests or PCR amplification, including FeLV, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, and Candidatus Myco-plasma turicensis.
Treatment and Outcome—A 10-day course of prednisolone administration did not improve the hematologic disorder. Administration of human polyclonal immunoglobulins preceded increased reticulocyte count by 3 days. A second bone marrow examination confirmed restoration of erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. After 1 relapse, the disease was successfully controlled with prednisolone for > 3 years.
Clinical Relevance—Immune-mediated bone marrow aplasia is rare in cats and usually affects only erythrocyte progenitors. Concomitant involvement of erythroid and megakaryocytic cell lines can be successfully treated via immunosuppressive therapy. Human immunoglobulins seem to be well tolerated in cats; however, proof of a beneficial effect requires further study.
To determine variability of global longitudinal strain (GLS) and strain rate (SR) measurements in dogs with and without cardiac disease derived from 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) by use of various software.
2 cohorts comprising 44 dogs (23 cardiovascularly healthy and 21 with cardiac disease) and 40 dogs (18 cardiovascularly healthy and 22 with cardiac disease).
Transthoracic echocardiographic images in each cohort were analyzed with vendor-independent software and vendor-specific 2-D STE software for each of 2 vendors. Values for GLS and SR obtained from the same left parasternal apical views with various software were compared. Intraobserver and interobserver variability was determined, and agreement among results for the various software was assessed.
Strain analysis was not feasible with vendor-independent software for 20% of images obtained with the ultrasonography system of vendor 1. Intraobserver and interobserver coefficient of variation was < 10% for GLS values, whereas SR measurements had higher variance. There was a significant difference in GLS and SR obtained for each cohort with different software. Evaluation of Bland-Altman plots revealed wide limits of agreement, with variance for GLS of up to 6.3 units in a single dog.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results of longitudinal strain analysis were not uniform among software, and GLS was the most reproducible measurement. Significant variability in results among software warrants caution when referring to reference ranges or comparing serial measurements in the same patient because changes of < 6.5% in GLS might be within measurement error for different postprocessing software.
Objective—To evaluate an electrolyte analyzer for
measurement of ionized calcium (Cai) and magnesium
(Mgi) concentrations in blood, plasma, and
serum; investigate the effect of various factors on
measured values; and establish reference ranges for
Cai and Mgi in dogs.
Animals—30 healthy adult dogs of various breeds.
Procedure—Precision in a measurement series, day-to-day precision, and linearity were used to evaluate
the analyzer. The effects of exposure of serum samples
to air, type of specimen (blood, plasma, or
serum), and storage temperature on sample stability
were assessed. Reference ranges were established
with anaerobically handled serum.
Results—The coefficient of variation for precision in a
measurement series was ≤ 1.5% for both electrolytes
at various concentrations. The Cai and Mgi concentrations
were significantly lower in aerobically handled
serum samples, compared with anaerobically handled
samples. The Cai and Mgi concentrations differed significantly
among blood, plasma, and serum samples.
In anaerobically handled serum, Cai was stable for 24
hours at 22°C, 48 hours at 4°C, and 11 weeks at
–20°C; Mgi was stable for 8 hours at 22°C, < 24 hours
at 4°C, and < 1 week at –20°C. In anaerobically handled
serum, reference ranges were 1.20 to 1.35
mmol/L for Cai and 0.42 to 0.58 mmol/L for Mgi.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The electrolyte
analyzer was suitable for determination of Cai
and Mgi concentrations in dogs. Accurate results
were obtained in anaerobically handled serum samples
analyzed within 8 hours and kept at 22°C. (Am J
Vet Res 2004;65:183–187)
Objective—To investigate the effects of twice-daily oral administration of hydrocortisone on the bile acids composition of gallbladder bile in dogs.
Animals—6 placebo-treated control dogs and 6 hydrocortisone-treated dogs.
Procedures—Dogs received hydrocortisone (median dose, 8.5 mg/kg) or a gelatin capsule (control group) orally every 12 hours for 84 days. Gallbladder bile samples were obtained via percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis from each dog before (day 0 [baseline]), during (days 28, 56, and 84), and after (days 28p, 56p, and 84p) treatment for differentiated quantification of unconjugated bile acids and taurine-conjugated and glycine-conjugated bile acids via high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.
Results—Treatment with hydrocortisone for 84 days resulted in significant and reversible increases in the concentrations of unconjugated bile acids (ie, cholic, chenodeoxycholic, and deoxycholic acids) and a significant and reversible decrease in the concentration of total taurine-conjugated bile acids, compared with baseline or control group values. Treatment with hydrocortisone had no effect on bile concentrations of glycine-conjugated bile acids.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, hydrocortisone administration caused reversible shifts toward higher concentrations of the more hydrophobic unconjugated bile acids (chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid) and toward lower concentrations of the amphipathic taurine-conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile. These data suggest that similar bile acids changes could cause major alterations in gallbladder structure or function over time in hypercortisolemic dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare stroke volume (SV) calculated on the basis of cardiac morphology determined by MRI and results of phase-contrast angiography (PCA) of ventricular inflow and outflow in dogs.
ANIMALS 10 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Cardiac MRI was performed twice on each Beagle. Cine gradient echo sequences of both ventricles in short-axis planes were used for morphological quantification of SVs by assessment of myocardial contours. From the long-axis plane, SVs in 4-chamber and left ventricular 2-chamber views were acquired at end diastole and end systole. For calculation of SV on the basis of blood flow, PCA was performed for cardiac valves.
RESULTS Mean ± SD values for SV quantified on the basis of blood flow were similar in all valves (aortic, 17.8 ± 4.1 mL; pulmonary, 17.2 ± 5.4 mL; mitral, 17.2 ± 3.9 mL; and tricuspid, 16.9 ± 5.1 mL). Morphological quantification of SV in the short-axis plane yielded significant differences between left (13.4 ± 2.7 mL) and right (8.6 ± 2.4 mL) sides. Morphological quantification of left ventricular SV in the long-axis plane (15.2 ± 3.3 mL and 20.7 ± 3.8 mL in the 4- and 2-chamber views) yielded variable results, which differed significantly from values for flow-based quantification, except for values for the morphological 4-chamber view and PCA for the atrioventricular valves, for which no significant differences were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In contrast to quantification based on blood flow, calculation on the basis of morphology for the short-axis plane significantly underestimated SV, probably because of through-plane motion and complex right ventricular anatomy.
Procedures—The heart of each anaconda was echocardiographically evaluated after food was withheld for 28 days as well as 3 and 10 days after feeding. Physical measurements included body length, weight, and circumference at the level of the heart. Echocardiographic measurements included heart rate and 2-D total and internal ventricular area. From these measurements, total ventricular volume as well as the myocardial area as a surrogate of myocardial mass was calculated.
Results—No significant changes in body length, weight, and circumference were found. Significant increases in heart rate (from 45 to 58 beats/min), total ventricular volume (from 4.63 to 5.54 mL), and myocardial area (from 0.7 to 0.81 cm2) were detected 10 days after feeding, compared with results obtained prior to feeding after food had been withheld for 28 days. No pericardial effusion was detected at any time point.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Echocardiographic evaluation of the heart of anacondas was performed, and feeding resulted in concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Physiologic fluctuation of cardiac dimensions should be considered when cardiac imaging is performed in snakes.
Objective—To evaluate whether determination of
parathyroid gland size by use of ultrasonography is
helpful in differentiating acute renal failure (ARF) from
chronic renal failure (CRF) in dogs.
Animals—20 dogs with renal failure in which serum
creatinine concentration was at least 5 times the
upper reference limit. Seven dogs had ARF, and 13
dogs had CRF. Twenty-three healthy dogs were used
Procedure—Dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency
for ultrasonographic examination of the ventral
portion of the neck, A 10-MHz linear-array high-resolution
transducer was used. The size of the parathyroid
gland was determined by measuring the maximal
length of the gland on the screen when it was imaged
in longitudinal section. For comparison among
groups, the longest linear dimension of any of the
parathyroid glands of each dog was used.
Results—Size of the parathyroid glands in the control
dogs varied from 2.0 to 4.6 mm (median, 3.3 mm). In the
dogs with ARF, gland size ranged from 2.4 to 4.0 mm
(median, 2.7), which was not significantly different from
controls. In dogs with CRF, the glands were more distinctly
demarcated from the surrounding thyroid tissue,
than those of controls and dogs with ARF. Sizes ranged
from 3.9 to 8.1 mm (median, 5.7 mm), which was significantly
larger, compared with controls and dogs with
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with
severe azotemia, ultrasonographic examination of the
parathyroid glands was helpful in differentiating ARF
from CRF. Size of the parathyroid glands appeared to
be related to body weight. (J Am Vet Med Assoc