To describe signalment, clinical signs, serologic test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with Coccidioides osteomyelitis (COM) and to compare those findings with findings for dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).
14 dogs with COM and 16 dogs with OSA.
Data were retrospectively gathered from electronic medical records.
Dogs with COM were younger and weighed less than dogs with OSA. Six dogs with COM had appendicular lesions, 5 had axial lesions, and 3 had both appendicular and axial lesions; 9 had monostotic disease, and 5 had polyostotic disease. Axial lesions and nonadjacent polyostotic disease were more common in dogs with COM than in dogs with OSA, but radiographic appearance was not different between the 2 groups. Median IgG titer at diagnosis of COM was 1:48 and was significantly decreased after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Percentage of dogs with COM that had clinical signs was significantly decreased after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. One year after initiation of treatment, 9 of 9 dogs were still receiving fluconazole and 8 of 9 dogs had positive results for serum IgG titer testing.
Dogs with COM typically had a rapid improvement in clinical signs after initiating treatment with fluconazole but required long-term antifungal treatment. Dogs with COM differed from dogs with OSA, but radiographic features had a great degree of overlap between groups, confounding the ability to make a diagnosis on the basis of diagnostic imaging alone.
To characterize the clinical course and therapeutic response in dogs with coccidioidomycosis treated with fluconazole.
49 client-owned dogs with coccidioidomycosis that were treated with fluconazole and had ≥ 2 follow-up examinations.
Medical records were retrospectively searched to identify dogs in which coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed between January 2015 and May 2020. Data recorded from each dog included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, and treatment.
Dogs were treated with fluconazole at a median initial dosage of 19.7 mg/kg/d. Median treatment duration was 298.5 days, with 26 of the 49 dogs completing treatment during the study period. Respiratory signs, lethargy, and hyporexia were the most common clinical signs. Frequency of lethargy decreased after 30 days, whereas frequency of hyporexia and respiratory signs decreased after 90 days. Median IgG titer at diagnosis was 1:32 and was significantly decreased, compared with baseline titer, at all recheck intervals after 90 days. Hyperglobulinemia, monocytosis, and neutrophilia were the most common clinicopathologic abnormalities. Hyperglobulinemia resolved within 30 days, neutrophilia resolved within 90 days, and monocytosis resolved after 180 days.
Improvements in clinical signs, titers, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were observed after initiation of treatment with fluconazole. Improvement began as early as the first 3 months of treatment, but some variables did not resolve until after 6 to 9 months of treatment. This information provides clinical guidance and describes expectations when prescribing fluconazole to treat coccidioidomycosis in dogs.
Objective—To determine the prevalence and severity
of pulmonary arterial lesions in cats seropositive for
heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) but lacking adult
heartworms in the heart and lungs during necropsy.
Animals—630 adult cats from an animal control shelter
Procedure—Cats were tested for adult heartworms
in the heart and pulmonary arteries and antibody
against heartworms in the serum. Histologic examination
was conducted on the right caudal lung lobe of
24 heartworm- and antibody-positive cats; 24 heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats; and 24
heartworm-, antibody-, and antigen-negative cats.
Wall areas of 10 small to medium-sized pulmonary
arteries of each cat were measured and expressed as
a proportion of total cross-sectional area.
Results—Heartworm infection or seropositive status
was significantly and strongly associated with severity
of medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial walls.
Heartworm- and antibody-positive cats and heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats had a significant
increase in wall thickness, compared with
wall thickness for heartworm- and antibody-negative
cats. Heartworm- and antibody-positive cats had the
most severe hypertrophy. The proportion with occlusive
medial hypertrophy was significantly higher in
heartworm- and antibody-positive cats (19/24 [79%])
and heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats
(12/24 [50%]), compared with heartworm- and antibody-negative cats (3/24 [13%]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with
serologic evidence of exposure to heartworms,
including those without adult heartworms in the lungs
and heart, have a greater prevalence of pulmonary
arterial lesions than heartworm-negative cats without
serologic evidence of exposure. Additional studies are
needed to define the pathogenesis, specificity, and
clinical importance of these lesions. (Am J Vet Res
OBJECTIVE To estimate Brucella canis seropositivity rates for purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders, describe epidemiological findings in infected commercial dog-production facilities, and characterize B canis infection in pet dogs and the risk to human health.
DESIGN Retrospective descriptive study.
SAMPLE 2,799 canine specimens submitted to the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for B canis testing and records of B canis reports provided to the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2007 through 2016.
PROCEDURES Results of B canis laboratory tests and epidemiological findings for reported cases of B canis were reviewed and summarized. Federal and state public health officials were interviewed regarding human B canis infection. State veterinarians were interviewed regarding canine brucellosis reporting and control procedures.
RESULTS Estimated B canis seropositivity was 0.4% among purebred Michigan dogs owned by noncommercial breeders. Infection was confirmed in dogs from 17 commercial dog-production facilities, 3 shelters, and 1 rescue agency. Estimated infection prevalence in production facilities ranged from 2 of 22 (9%) to 5 of 6 (83%). Transfer of infected dogs involved 22 Michigan counties and 11 states. Seven of 20 privately owned infected dogs had diskospondylitis; I also had uveitis. Fifty-three veterinary hospital or diagnostic laboratory personnel had inadvertent exposure to the pathogen. Brucella canis was isolated from 1 commercial production facility owner.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCEB canis was uncommon in purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders but endemic in Michigan commercial facilities producing dogs destined to become household pets. Infected pet dogs caused human B canis exposure, and several pet dogs had debilitating disease not associated with the reproductive system.