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To describe signalment, clinical signs, serologic test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with Coccidioides osteomyelitis (COM) and to compare those findings with findings for dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).


14 dogs with COM and 16 dogs with OSA.


Data were retrospectively gathered from electronic medical records.


Dogs with COM were younger and weighed less than dogs with OSA. Six dogs with COM had appendicular lesions, 5 had axial lesions, and 3 had both appendicular and axial lesions; 9 had monostotic disease, and 5 had polyostotic disease. Axial lesions and nonadjacent polyostotic disease were more common in dogs with COM than in dogs with OSA, but radiographic appearance was not different between the 2 groups. Median IgG titer at diagnosis of COM was 1:48 and was significantly decreased after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Percentage of dogs with COM that had clinical signs was significantly decreased after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. One year after initiation of treatment, 9 of 9 dogs were still receiving fluconazole and 8 of 9 dogs had positive results for serum IgG titer testing.


Dogs with COM typically had a rapid improvement in clinical signs after initiating treatment with fluconazole but required long-term antifungal treatment. Dogs with COM differed from dogs with OSA, but radiographic features had a great degree of overlap between groups, confounding the ability to make a diagnosis on the basis of diagnostic imaging alone.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the prevalence and severity of pulmonary arterial lesions in cats seropositive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) but lacking adult heartworms in the heart and lungs during necropsy.

Animals—630 adult cats from an animal control shelter in Florida.

Procedure—Cats were tested for adult heartworms in the heart and pulmonary arteries and antibody against heartworms in the serum. Histologic examination was conducted on the right caudal lung lobe of 24 heartworm- and antibody-positive cats; 24 heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats; and 24 heartworm-, antibody-, and antigen-negative cats. Wall areas of 10 small to medium-sized pulmonary arteries of each cat were measured and expressed as a proportion of total cross-sectional area.

Results—Heartworm infection or seropositive status was significantly and strongly associated with severity of medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial walls. Heartworm- and antibody-positive cats and heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats had a significant increase in wall thickness, compared with wall thickness for heartworm- and antibody-negative cats. Heartworm- and antibody-positive cats had the most severe hypertrophy. The proportion with occlusive medial hypertrophy was significantly higher in heartworm- and antibody-positive cats (19/24 [79%]) and heartworm-negative and antibody-positive cats (12/24 [50%]), compared with heartworm- and antibody-negative cats (3/24 [13%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with serologic evidence of exposure to heartworms, including those without adult heartworms in the lungs and heart, have a greater prevalence of pulmonary arterial lesions than heartworm-negative cats without serologic evidence of exposure. Additional studies are needed to define the pathogenesis, specificity, and clinical importance of these lesions. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1544–1549)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To estimate Brucella canis seropositivity rates for purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders, describe epidemiological findings in infected commercial dog-production facilities, and characterize B canis infection in pet dogs and the risk to human health.

DESIGN Retrospective descriptive study.

SAMPLE 2,799 canine specimens submitted to the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for B canis testing and records of B canis reports provided to the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2007 through 2016.

PROCEDURES Results of B canis laboratory tests and epidemiological findings for reported cases of B canis were reviewed and summarized. Federal and state public health officials were interviewed regarding human B canis infection. State veterinarians were interviewed regarding canine brucellosis reporting and control procedures.

RESULTS Estimated B canis seropositivity was 0.4% among purebred Michigan dogs owned by noncommercial breeders. Infection was confirmed in dogs from 17 commercial dog-production facilities, 3 shelters, and 1 rescue agency. Estimated infection prevalence in production facilities ranged from 2 of 22 (9%) to 5 of 6 (83%). Transfer of infected dogs involved 22 Michigan counties and 11 states. Seven of 20 privately owned infected dogs had diskospondylitis; I also had uveitis. Fifty-three veterinary hospital or diagnostic laboratory personnel had inadvertent exposure to the pathogen. Brucella canis was isolated from 1 commercial production facility owner.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE B canis was uncommon in purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders but endemic in Michigan commercial facilities producing dogs destined to become household pets. Infected pet dogs caused human B canis exposure, and several pet dogs had debilitating disease not associated with the reproductive system.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association