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  • Author or Editor: Tisha A. M. Harper x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effectiveness of cystotomy for complete removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs, the types and frequency of diagnostic imaging performed to verify complete urolith removal, the complications that develop as a result of cystotomy, and predictors of each of these variables.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—128 dogs that underwent a cystotomy for removal of urocystoliths, urethroliths, or both from 1994 through 2006.

Procedures—The following data were obtained from medical records: sex, body weight, number and locations of lower urinary tract uroliths identified in preoperative and postoperative imaging reports, types of imaging used for urolith detection, number of uroliths recovered during cystotomy, quantitative urolith composition, and major complications attributable to cystotomy. Objective criteria were applied to determine whether a cystotomy failed or succeeded and whether appropriate imaging was performed. Associations between potential prognostic factors and outcomes were statistically assessed.

Results—Effectiveness of cystotomy could be determined in 44 (34%) dogs, of which 9 (20%) had incomplete removal of uroliths. Appropriate postoperative imaging was performed for only 19 (15%) dogs, of which 8 had incomplete removal. Dogs with both urethroliths and urocystoliths were more likely to have a failed cystotomy than dogs with only urethroliths or urocystoliths. Complications developed in 5 (4%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystotomy was a safe and effective surgical procedure for removal of lower urinary tract uroliths in most dogs. Failure to remove all uroliths occurred in a substantial percentage of patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the repeatability and accuracy of fingertip pulse oximeters (FPO) for measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in arterial blood and pulse rate (PR) in anesthetized dogs breathing 100% O2.


29 healthy client-owned anesthetized dogs undergoing various surgical procedures.


In randomized order, each of 7 FPOs or a reference pulse oximeter (PO) was applied to the tongue of each intubated anesthetized dog breathing 100% O2. Duplicate measurements of oxygen saturation (Spo 2) and PR were obtained within 60 seconds of applying an FPO or PO. A nonparametric version of Bland-Altman analysis was used. Coefficient of repeatability was the interval between the 5th and 95th percentiles of the differences between duplicate measurements. Bias was the median difference, and the limits of agreement were the 5th and 95th percentiles of the differences between each FPO and the PO. Acceptable values for the coefficient of repeatability of Spo 2 were ≤ 6%. Agreements were accepted if the limits of agreement had an absolute difference of ≤ ± 3% in Spo 2 and relative difference of ≤ ± 10% in PR.


Coefficient of repeatability for Spo 2 was acceptable for 5 FPOs, but the limits of agreement for Spo 2 were unacceptable for all FPOs. The limits of agreement for PR were acceptable for 2 FPOs.


Results suggested that some FPOs may be suitable for accurately monitoring PRs of healthy anesthetized dogs breathing 100% O2, but mild underestimation of Spo 2 was common.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research