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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effectiveness of cystotomy for complete removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs, the types and frequency of diagnostic imaging performed to verify complete urolith removal, the complications that develop as a result of cystotomy, and predictors of each of these variables.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—128 dogs that underwent a cystotomy for removal of urocystoliths, urethroliths, or both from 1994 through 2006.

Procedures—The following data were obtained from medical records: sex, body weight, number and locations of lower urinary tract uroliths identified in preoperative and postoperative imaging reports, types of imaging used for urolith detection, number of uroliths recovered during cystotomy, quantitative urolith composition, and major complications attributable to cystotomy. Objective criteria were applied to determine whether a cystotomy failed or succeeded and whether appropriate imaging was performed. Associations between potential prognostic factors and outcomes were statistically assessed.

Results—Effectiveness of cystotomy could be determined in 44 (34%) dogs, of which 9 (20%) had incomplete removal of uroliths. Appropriate postoperative imaging was performed for only 19 (15%) dogs, of which 8 had incomplete removal. Dogs with both urethroliths and urocystoliths were more likely to have a failed cystotomy than dogs with only urethroliths or urocystoliths. Complications developed in 5 (4%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cystotomy was a safe and effective surgical procedure for removal of lower urinary tract uroliths in most dogs. Failure to remove all uroliths occurred in a substantial percentage of patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare perceptions related to veterinary anesthesiologist involvement with anesthesia and pain management, benefits of a preanesthetic consultation (PAC) with an anesthesiologist, and quality of patient care between clients who did and did not participate in a PAC prior to their dogs’ elective orthopedic surgery.

SAMPLE

80 dog owners.

PROCEDURES

Owners of dogs undergoing elective stifle joint surgery participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to PAC and control groups (n = 40 participants/group). The PAC group participated in a PAC with an anesthesiologist and completed a written survey (12 items with Likert-type response options). The control group completed a similar survey (identical except for 2 statements related to the PAC experience) without participating in a PAC. Results were compared between groups by statistical methods.

RESULTS

The proportion of clients in the PAC group who strongly agreed with the statements that a PAC was beneficial, their questions about the pet's anesthesia and pain management plan were answered, they knew who would perform anesthesia and what safeguards were in place, veterinary specialty hospitals should have an anesthesiologist on staff, they were willing to pay more to have an anesthesiologist supervise the anesthesia and pain management, and a PAC with an anesthesiologist should be standard of care in veterinary medicine was greater than that for control group clients. Responses to quality-of-care items did not differ between groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Participating in a PAC was associated with more positive perceptions of anesthesiologists and knowledge about the anesthesia plan. Further research with a validated survey instrument is needed to confirm these findings.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare measurements of crude fiber (CF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) for various dog foods and their effect on the calculated nitrogen-free extract and metabolizable energy (ME) content, and to compare label-guaranteed and laboratory-analyzed macronutrient values.

SAMPLE

51 dog foods fed to client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis.

PROCEDURES

Foods were analyzed for dry matter, ash, crude protein, acid-hydrolyzed fat, CF, and TDF. Metabolizable energy was calculated by use of a formula with modified Atwater factors and formulas recommended by the National Research Council that included both CF and TDF values. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between CF and TDF values.

RESULTS

Only a few foods failed to conform to the guaranteed analysis for all macronutrients except for CF, in which approximately 40% of the foods exceeded the guaranteed maximum values. The CF and TDF values were moderately correlated (r = 0.843). Correlations among CF- and TDF-based ME estimations were moderate with use of the modified Atwater formula and strong with use of the National Research Council formulas (r = 0.86 and r = 0.91, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Values for CF were the most variable of the macronutrients of the evaluated dog foods and results suggested that CF is an incomplete and inaccurate measurement of dietary fiber content and, thus, its inaccuracy may lead to inaccurate and variable ME values.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the repeatability and accuracy of fingertip pulse oximeters (FPO) for measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in arterial blood and pulse rate (PR) in anesthetized dogs breathing 100% O2.

ANIMALS

29 healthy client-owned anesthetized dogs undergoing various surgical procedures.

PROCEDURES

In randomized order, each of 7 FPOs or a reference pulse oximeter (PO) was applied to the tongue of each intubated anesthetized dog breathing 100% O2. Duplicate measurements of oxygen saturation (Spo 2) and PR were obtained within 60 seconds of applying an FPO or PO. A nonparametric version of Bland-Altman analysis was used. Coefficient of repeatability was the interval between the 5th and 95th percentiles of the differences between duplicate measurements. Bias was the median difference, and the limits of agreement were the 5th and 95th percentiles of the differences between each FPO and the PO. Acceptable values for the coefficient of repeatability of Spo 2 were ≤ 6%. Agreements were accepted if the limits of agreement had an absolute difference of ≤ ± 3% in Spo 2 and relative difference of ≤ ± 10% in PR.

RESULTS

Coefficient of repeatability for Spo 2 was acceptable for 5 FPOs, but the limits of agreement for Spo 2 were unacceptable for all FPOs. The limits of agreement for PR were acceptable for 2 FPOs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that some FPOs may be suitable for accurately monitoring PRs of healthy anesthetized dogs breathing 100% O2, but mild underestimation of Spo 2 was common.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research