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Objective—To compare tibial plateau angle (TPA) in dogs with unilateral versus bilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture, to compare right versus left TPA in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture, and to determine whether TPA can be used to predict whether a dog with unilateral CCL rupture would subsequently rupture the contralateral CCL.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—150 dogs with unilateral (n = 58) or bilateral (92) CCL rupture.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed and TPA was recorded. Dogs with unilateral CCL rupture that were not known to have ruptured the contralateral ligament were followed up for a minimum of 2 years.

Results—Dogs with unilateral CCL rupture were significantly older (median, 7.0 years) than dogs with bilateral CCL rupture (median, 4.5 years). Median TPA for dogs with unilateral CCL rupture (26°) was not significantly different from median TPA for dogs with bilateral rupture (27° in both the right and left limbs), and right and left TPAs were not significantly different in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture. There was no correlation between TPA and the time interval between diagnosis of the initial and subsequent CCL ruptures in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that TPA in the range studied (mostly < 35°) was not a useful predictor of contralateral CCL rupture among dogs with unilateral CCL rupture, although age may be a risk factor for development of bilateral CCL rupture. The incidence of bilateral CCL rupture may be higher than previously reported.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the knowledge and use of safe surgical checklists (SSCs) and surgical safety practices (SSPs) in different sectors of veterinary medicine.


1,235 small animal veterinarians who perform surgery in the United States and Canada.


An online survey was distributed to veterinarians through social media platforms, specialty listservs, and the Veterinary Information Network. Respondents provided information regarding their role, practice type, as well as knowledge, attitudes, and use of SSCs. Respondents also provided information about performance of SSPs including team introductions; confirmation of antibiotic prophylaxis, patient identity, procedure to be performed; and confirmation of completion of all procedures.


A greater proportion of Diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (49/77 [64%]) reported using an SSC than other veterinarians (257/1157 [22%]; P < .0001). A greater proportion of veterinarians working in university and multispecialty hospitals reported using a SSC (71/142 [50%]) than in other practice settings (235/1092 [22%]; P < .0001). Use of a SSC correlated with consistent performance of surgical safety practices listed above (P < .0001). Primary care veterinarians commonly reported not using a SSC because they did not know about them (359/590 [61%]). Of the 507 respondents who had ever used a SSC, 333 (66%) believed the checklist had prevented an error or complication.


Despite widespread knowledge and adoption of SSC use in human medicine, knowledge and use of SSCs is lacking in primary care veterinary practice. Checklist use has previously been shown to decrease post operative complications and in this study was correlated with increased use of SSPs that decreased complications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in American Journal of Veterinary Research