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  • Author or Editor: Timothy R. Boosinger x
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Summary

Twenty-four isolates representing 6 species of Campylobacter were screened for plasmids. A large plasmid with an approximate molecular weight of 38 Mdal was detected in 5 C jejuni isolates originally recovered from diarrheic human beings, in one isolate of C coli recovered from diarrheic pigs, and in 1 isolate of C sputorum ssp mucosalis and 2 isolates of C hyointestinalis recovered from pigs with proliferative enteritis. One isolate of C coli and 1 isolate of C hyointestinalis contained an additional smaller plasmid with an approximate molecular weight of 1.6 Mdal; this plasmid was partially mapped by restriction endonuclease digestion. Fifteen Campylobacter isolates contained no detectable plasmids: 2 C coli, 2 C sputorum ssp mucosalis, 2 C fecalis, 1 C fetus ssp fetus, and 8 C hyointestinalis isolates. In summary, 37.5% of the Campylobacter isolates contained a 38-Mdal plasmid, with 8% having both 38 Mdal and 1.6-Mdal plasmids; 62.5% contained no detectable plasmids.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate changes on the surfaces of polymethylmethacrylate (pmma), silicone, and polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (hema) intraocular lenses (iol) that had been implanted in the anterior chambers of the right eyes of 15 dogs. Five dogs received pmma iol; 5 dogs received silicone iol; and 5 dogs received hema iol. Twenty-eight days after surgery, the iol were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Nonimplanted iol of each type were processed identically for comparison. Implanted pmma iol had significantly more debris and macrophages on their surfaces than did silicone iol or hema iol. Silicone iol had significantly less fibrin deposition than did pmma or hema iol. Silicone iol had surface defects attributable to handling by surgical instruments. Implanted hema iol had multiple pits that appeared to be caused by biodegradation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Clinical findings indicate that canine eyes tolerate implantation of polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) intraocular lenses (iol) well, although inflammation and ocular damage attributable to the implants is not known. The use of silicone or polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (hema) iol has not been reported in dogs. In this study, 15 conditioned, mixed-breed dogs were allotted to 3 groups: 5 received pmma iol; 5 received silicone iol; and 5 received hema iol. The iol optic was inserted into the anterior chamber of the right eye and anchored to the cornea. An identical surgical procedure was done on the left eye, except that no lens optic was inserted. Clinical examination and measurement of corneal thickness were done immediately prior to and after surgery. Aqueous humor samples were collected at the time of surgery and 28 days after surgery. Only mild and transient inflammation was observed in iol-implanted eyes. On several postoperative days, it was found that pmma iol induced significantly greater corneal thickness, aqueous flare, anterior uveal irritation, and corneal edema than did other iol. Significantly more anterior uveal irritation and increased aqueous humor protein concentration was observed with hema iol than with pmma or silicone iol. Silicone iol induced significantly less fibrin deposition than did pmma or hema iol.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Newborn foals of mares grazing on Acremonium coenophialum-infected fescue pasture throughout gestation or from gestation day 300 to parturition had increased gestation duration and decreased serum triiodothyronine concentration. Pregnant mares were allotted to 4 treatments: grazing continuously on endophyte-free (E) fescue, grazing continuously on endophyte-infected (E+) fescue, grazing on E+ fescue from gestation day 300 to parturition, and grazing on E+ fescue from conception to gestation day 300. Morphometric studies indicated that foals born to mares exposed to endophyte late in gestation had large, distended thyroid follicles lined by flat cuboidal epithelial cells. Mean triiodothyronine concentration in foals exposed to endophyte (395.2 ng/dl) was decreased (P < 0.01), compared with mean values in control foals (778.0 ng/dl). Thyroxine and reverse triiodothyronine concentrations were not significantly different among groups. Foal organ weight as a percentage of foal body weight was not significantly different among experimental groups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Effects of the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue on pregnant mares and foal viability were evaluated. Twenty-two mature pregnant mares were randomly chosen to graze either Kentucky-31 tall fescue that was free from A coenophialum (endophyte-free, ef) or tall fescue infected with A coenophialum (endophyte-present, ep) after the first 90 days of pregnancy through parturition. Concentrations of pyrrolizidine and ergopeptine alkaloids were significantly greater in ep grass, compared with ef pasture. Ten of 11 mares grazing ep pasture had obvious dystocia. Mean duration of gestation was significantly greater for the ep group, compared with the ef group. Foal survivability was severely reduced among mares grazing ep fescue with only 1 foal surviving the natal period. Udder development and lactation were low in mares grazing ep grass. The absence of clinical problems in mares grazing ef grass implicated the endophyte as the causative agent of reproductive problems and perinatal foal mortality in pregnant mares grazing endophyte-infected fescue grass. Caution should be exercised in allowing pregnant mares to graze pastures infected with the endophyte A coenophialum.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Over an 8-year period, 8 beef cattle with mesothelioma were admitted to the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine and the Louisiana State School of Veterinary Medicine. Diagnosis was confirmed by histologic examination of affected tissues. Five bulls, 1 steer, and 2 cows were affected. Four of the bulls had scrotal swelling; 2 cows and 1 bull had ventral abdominal swelling. The peritoneal cavity was involved in 5 cases, the pleural cavity was affected in 2 cases, and in 2 cases, disease was apparently confined to the vaginal cavity. Of the 8 cattle, 6 died or were euthanatized; only cattle with tumor apparently confined to the vaginal cavity survived.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association