Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of vinorelbine in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—58 dogs with malignant tumors, including pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31), histiocytic sarcoma (9), mast cell tumor (5), lymphoma (4), melanoma (2), and 7 other tumor types (1 each).
Procedures—Medical records of dogs treated with vinorelbine from December 1997 to December 2012 were reviewed for data regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic test results, diagnostic imaging results, vinorelbine doses and dose frequency, surgery and radiotherapy details when applicable, other chemotherapeutics administered, and outcomes. Descriptive, comparative, and survival statistics were computed for all dogs and for dogs by histologic subgroup of tumors.
Results—Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to 44 (76%) dogs. One (2%) dog had a complete response for 162 days, 5 (11%) dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days, 19 (43%) dogs had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days, and 19 (43%) dogs developed progressive disease after a median duration of 21 days. Clinical benefit was more difficult to assess in the remaining 14 (24%) dogs that received vinorelbine as an adjuvant treatment. Overall median time to tumor progression was 103 days (range, 5 to 1,533 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vinorelbine appeared to be effective in the treatment of several tumor types in dogs. Follow-up prospective studies of the clinical benefit of the drug in specific clinical scenarios will be necessary to support this conclusion.
Objective—To evaluate changes in resting energy
expenditure (REE) as well as protein and carbohydrate
metabolism in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).
Animals—15 weight-stable dogs with OSA that did
not have other concurrent metabolic or endocrine illness
and twelve 1-year-old sexually intact female
Beagles (control dogs).
Procedures—Indirect calorimetry was performed on
all dogs to determine REE and respiratory quotient
(RQ). Stable isotope tracers (15N-glycine, 4.5 mg/kg of
body weight, IV; 6,6-deuterium-glucose, 4.5 mg/kg, IV
as a bolus, followed by continuous-rate infusion at 1.5
mg/kg/h for 3 hours) were used to determine rate of
protein synthesis and glucose flux in all dogs. Dualenergy
x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were performed
to determine total body composition.
Results—Accounting for metabolic body size, REE in
dogs with OSA was significantly higher before and
after surgery, compared with REE of healthy control
dogs. The RQ values did not differ significantly
between groups. Dogs with OSA also had decreased
rates of protein synthesis, increased urinary nitrogen
loss, and increased glucose flux during the postoperative
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in
energy expenditure, protein synthesis, urinary nitrogen
loss, and carbohydrate flux were evident in dogs
with OSA, similar to results documented in humans
with neoplasia. Changes were documented in REE as
well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism in dogs
with OSA. These changes were evident even in dogs
that did not have clinical signs of cachexia. (Am J Vet