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  • Author or Editor: Timothy E. Morey x
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Objective—To compare 3 types of noxious stimuli applied to various anatomic areas of anesthetized dogs and rabbits for determination of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC).

Animals—10 dogs and 10 rabbits.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane and halothane in a randomized order. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. The MAC was determined by skin incision on the lateral aspect of the chest; clamping of the tail, paw of the forelimb, and paw of the hind limb; and application of electrical current to the oral mucosa (dogs only), forelimb, and hind limb. The MAC was the end-tidal concentration midway between the value permitting and preventing purposeful movement in response to noxious stimuli.

Results—In dogs, mean ± SEM MAC for isoflurane was 1.27 ± 0.05% for clamping stimuli, 1.36 ± 0.04% for oral electrical stimulation, 1.35 ± 0.04% for electrical stimulation to the limbs, and 1.01 ± 0.07% for surgical incision. The MAC for halothane was 0.97 ± 0.03% for tail clamping, 0.96 ± 0.03% for clamping of the limbs, 1.04 ± 0.03% for electrical stimulation, and 0.75 ± 0.06% for surgical incision. In rabbits, MAC for isoflurane was 2.08 ± 0.02% for clamping stimuli, 2.04 ± 0.02% for electrical stimulation, and 0.90 ± 0.02% for surgical incision. The MAC for surgical incision was significantly lower than values for the other methods in both species.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of electrical current and clamping techniques resulted in similar MAC values. Surgical incision underestimated MAC values in dogs and rabbits. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:957–962)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare cardiac output (CO) measured by use of the partial carbon dioxide rebreathing method (NICO) or lithium dilution method (LiDCO) in anesthetized foals.

Sample Population—Data reported in 2 other studies for 18 neonatal foals that weighed 32 to 61 kg.

Procedures—Foals were anesthetized and instrumented to measure direct blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases, end-tidal isoflurane and carbon dioxide concentrations, and CO. Various COs were achieved by administration of dobutamine, norepinephrine, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and isoflurane to allow comparisons between LiDCO and NICO methods. Measurements were obtained in duplicate or triplicate. We allowed 2 minutes between measurements for LiDCO and 3 minutes for NICO after achieving a stable hemodynamic plane for at least 10 to 15 minutes at each CO.

Results—217 comparisons were made. Correlation (r = 0.77) was good between the 2 methods for all determinations. Mean ± SD measurements of cardiac index for all comparisons with the LiDCO and NICO methods were 138 ± 62 mL/kg/min (range, 40 to 381 mL/kg/min) and 154 ± 55 mL/kg/min (range, 54 to 358 mL/kg/min), respectively. Mean difference (bias) between LiDCO and NICO measurements was −17.3 mL/kg/min with a precision (1.96 × SD) of 114 mL/kg/min (range, −131.3 to 96.7). Mean of the differences of LiDCO and NICO measurements was 4.37 + (0.87 × NICO value).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The NICO method is a viable, noninvasive method for determination of CO in neonatal foals with normal respiratory function. It compares well with the more invasive LiDCO method.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research