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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (hscas), an anticaking agent for agricultural feeds, was added to aflatoxin (af)-contaminated diets of 3 lactating dairy cows and evaluated for its potential to reduce aflatoxin M1 (afm 1) residues in milk. During phase I, cows were fed alternating diets that consisted of 200 μg of af/kg of feed for 7 days, 0.5% hscas plus 200 μg of af/kg of feed for 7 days, and feed with the hscas removed for a final 7 days. The afm 1 milk concentrations from the intervals with hscas added to diets were compared with those times when hscas was absent. The presence of 0.5% hscas in feed containing 200 μg of af/kg reduced afm 1 secretion into the milk by an average of 0.44 μg/L (from pretreatment of 1.85 μg/L to 1.41 μg/L with hscas, a 24% reduction). Following a 10-day period of noncontaminated feed consumption and no afm 1 residues in the milk, phase II of the study was begun. The same experimental design as phase I was used, but the dosages of hscas and af were changed to 1.0% and 100 μg/kg of feed, respectively. The addition of 1.0% hscas in feed containing 100 μg of af/kg decreased afm 1 content in the milk by an average of 0.40 μg/L (from a pretreatment of 0.91 μg/L to 0.51 μg/L when hscas was present, a 44% reduction). These findings suggest that hscas, a high-affinity sorbent compound for af in vitro, is capable of reducing the secretion of afm 1 into milk.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Effects of dietary aflatoxin (af) and T-2 toxin, singly and in combination, were evaluated in growing crossbred (Yorkshire × Landrace × Hampshire) pigs. The experimental design consisted of 4 treatment groups of 6 barrows each fed diets containing 0 mg of af and T-2/kg of feed (controls; group 1), 2.5 mg of af/kg of feed (group 2), 10 mg of T-2/kg of feed (group 3), or 2.5 mg of af plus 10 mg of T-2/kg of feed (af + T-2; group 4) ad libitum for 28 days (7 to 11 weeks of age). Production performance, and serum biochemical, and hematologic evaluations were made weekly. Body weight and body weight gain were depressed by all toxin treatments, but the effect of af and T-2 toxin in combination was less than additive. Liver and kidney weights, as a percentage of body weight, were increased by af treatment, and heart weight, as a percentage of body weight, was increased by T-2 treatment. Treatment with T-2 toxin induced necrotizing contact dermatitis on the snout, buccal commissures, and prepuce. Consumption of af resulted in increased serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, cholinesterase, and γ-glutamyltransferase, and decreased serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Consumption of T-2 toxin resulted in increased serum triglyceride concentration and decreased serum iron concentration. Treatment with af induced lower serum unsaturated iron-binding capacity and high rbc count, pcv, hemoglobin concentration, wbc count, and prothrombin time. Treatment with T-2 toxin induced microcytic hypochromic anemia, increased numbers of circulating metarubricytes and decreased absolute numbers of lymphocytes. Hepatocellular lesions in barrows of the af and the af plus T-2 groups (2 and 4, respectively) were compatible with aflatoxicosis. When fed in combination, each toxin appeared to have a sparing action on certain effects of the other, and the responses elicited were either additive or less than additive.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (hscas), an anticaking agent for mixed feed, was added to the diets of growing wethers (mean body weight, 34.0 kg) and was evaluated for its ability to diminish the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis. The experimental design consisted of 4 treatment groups of 5 wethers each, consuming concentrations of 0 g of hscas and 0 g of aflatoxin (af)/kg of feed (control; group 1); 20 g of hscas/kg (2.0%; group 2), 2.6 mg of af/kg (group 3); or 20 g of hscas (2.0%) plus 2.6 mg of af/kg (group 4). Wethers were maintained in indoor pens, with feed and water available ad libitum for 42 days. Lambs were observed twice daily and weighed weekly, and blood samples were obtained every 2 weeks for hematologic and serum biochemical analyses and for measurement of mitogen-induced lymphocyte-stimulation index. At the termination of the study, wethers were euthanatized and necropsied. Body weight gain was diminished significantly (P < 0.05) by consumption of 2.6 mg of af/kg of feed, whereas body weight of lambs consuming hscas plus af did not differ from that of control wethers. The af-alone treatment increased serum aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities, prothrombin time, and cholesterol, uric acid, and triglyceride values and decreased albumin, glucose, and urea nitrogen values, and urea-to-creatine ratio. A 27% decrease in lymphocyte stimulation index, increased spleen weight (as a percentage of body weight), and decreased liver weight were induced by af-alone treatment. Results indicate that hscas may be a high-affinity sorbent for af, that 2.6 mg of af/kg of feed induces signs of aflatoxicosis in growing wethers, that lambs may not be as resistant to the effects of af as previously thought, that 2.0% hscas can substantially reduce the toxic effects of 2.6 mg of af/kg, and that sorbent compounds may offer a novel approach to the preventive management of aflatoxicosis in livestock.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effect of food containing high concentrations of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and a low omega-6–omega-3 fatty acid ratio on clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs.

Design—Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—127 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis in 1 or more joints from 18 privately owned veterinary clinics.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to be fed for 6 months with a typical commercial food or a test food containing a 31-fold increase in total omega-3 fatty acid content and a 34-fold decrease in omega-6–omega-3 ratio, compared with the control food. Dog owners completed a questionnaire about their dog's arthritic condition, and investigators performed a physical examination and collected samples for a CBC and serum biochemical analyses (including measurement of fatty acids concentration) at the onset of the study and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks afterward.

Results—Dogs fed the test food had a significantly higher serum concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids and a significantly lower serum concentration of arachidonic acid at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. According to owners, dogs fed the test food had a significantly improved ability to rise from a resting position and play at 6 weeks and improved ability to walk at 12 and 24 weeks, compared with control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of the test food raised blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and appeared to improve the arthritic condition in pet dogs with osteoarthritis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association