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Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old Quarter Horse stallion was evaluated because of a 10-month history of moderate (grade 3/5) left forelimb lameness (detectable during trotting over a smooth, hard surface).

Clinical Findings—No abnormalities were detected in either forelimb via palpation or application of hoof testers; however, lameness was eliminated after administration of a palmar digital nerve block in the left forelimb. Whereas radiography and ultrasonography did not identify any left forelimb foot abnormalities, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a circumscribed soft tissue mass in the distal aspect of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) dorsal to the lateral aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon. Subsequently, the left forelimb DFTS was injected with local anesthetic, which resulted in 90% improvement of the horse's lameness.

Treatment and Outcome—The distal aspect of the left forelimb DFTS was evaluated tenoscopically. The mass was removed under tenoscopic guidance, after which the distal digital annular ligament was transected. The horse received phenylbutazone orally for 10 days, and the left forelimb DFTS was injected with hyaluronic acid and methylprednisolone acetate 7 days after the surgery. Following a rehabilitation program, the horse was returned to full training at 6 months after surgery and competed successfully during a 2-year follow-up period.

Clinical Relevance—Use of MR imaging should be considered in all lame horses for which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made via radiography, ultrasonography, or other imaging techniques, especially when the lameness has been localized to a specific anatomic region by use of diagnostic anesthesia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old Appaloosa mare was examined for severe left forelimb lameness of 4 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Lameness was evident at the walk and trot and was exacerbated when the horse circled to the left. Signs of pain were elicited in response to hoof testers placed over the frog of the left front hoof, and a palmar digital nerve block eliminated the lameness. Radiographs revealed no abnormalities, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed increased bone density in the medullary cavity of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone in the proton density and T2-weighted images and a defect in the fibrocartilage and subchondral bone of the flexor cortex.

Treatment and Outcome—Because of the absence of improvement after 4 months and the poor prognosis for return to soundness, the mare was euthanatized. An adhesion between the deep digital flexor tendon and the flexor cortex defect on the navicular bone was grossly evident, and histologic evaluation revealed diffuse replacement of marrow trabecular bone with compact lamellar bone. Changes were consistent with blunt traumatic injury to the navicular bone that resulted in bone proliferation in the medullary cavity.

Clinical Relevance—Use of MRI enabled detection of changes that were not radiographically evident and enabled accurate diagnosis of the cause of lameness. Navicular bone injury may occur without fracture and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with an acute onset of severe unilateral forelimb lameness originating from the heel portion of the foot.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—Severe disease and death were identified in cattle exhibited at a state fair that were naturally infected with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2).

Clinical Findings—Most affected cattle had anorexia, signs of depression, diarrhea, fever, and respiratory distress ultimately leading to death. Mean duration of clinical signs prior to death was 6 days (range, 1 to 26 days). Mean number of days between apparent exposure and death was 71 days (range, 46 to 139 days).

Treatment and Outcomes—19 of 132 cattle cohoused in 1 barn died of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The diagnosis of sheep-associated MCF was confirmed on the basis of results of an OvHV-2–specific PCR assay performed on tissue samples obtained from affected cattle. The disease was associated but not significantly with distance from the center of the barn and was not associated with distance from the center of the sheep pens.

Clinical Relevance—Outbreaks of MCF in cattle are unusual, particularly in association with livestock exhibitions. Because the clinical signs may be similar to those of some transboundary diseases, cases of MCF should be reported and investigated. Findings for this outbreak provided evidence to suggest that fair boards and veterinarians should reexamine biosecurity recommendations for livestock exhibitions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association