Objective—To establish an immortalized cell line and
transplantable xenograft of feline bronchioloalveolar
lung carcinoma (BAC).
Sample Population—Pleural effusion from a 12-yearold
Persian male cat with BAC.
Procedure—Tumor cells from the pleural effusion
were grown in monolayer cell culture and injected
into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice
to establish an immortalized cell line as well as a
Results—Both the primary lung carcinoma, the
derived cell line, and the transplantable xenograft had
evidence of a type-II pneumocyte origin expressing
lamellar bodies ultrastructurally and thyroid transcription
factor-1 and surfactant immunocytochemically. All
3 also expressed nuclear p53 immunoreactivity. A
metaphase spread of the cell line (SPARKY) probed
with fluorescein-labeled genomic feline DNA gave evidence
of its feline origin. Flow cytometric studies indicated
aneuploidy with a DNA index of 1.6. An R-banded
karyotype revealed a modal number of 66 including
the feline Y chromosome. The cell line had a doubling
time of 16 hours. The xenograft (SPARKY-X)
reached a diameter of 1 cm in 3 weeks in SCID mice.
Deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprint analysis revealed
that SPARKY and SPARKY-X were novel and strongly
matched each other, except for the murine component
found in SPARKY-X. Interestingly, SPARKY-X
manifested the characteristic lepidic growth pattern of
Conclusions—Both the cell line and xenograft
retained their autochthonous BAC phenotype, making
them useful for the subsequent dissection of molecular
abnormalities in feline BAC and in vitro screening
of chemotherapeutic agents. (Am J Vet Res 2002;
Objective—To determine the frequency of canine and feline emergency visits with respect to the lunar cycle.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—11,940 dogs and cats evaluated on an emergency basis during an 11-year period.
Procedures—Date of emergency visit, signalment, and chief complaint were retrieved from a medical records database. Emergency type was categorized as animal bite, cardiac arrest, epilepsy, ophthalmic, gastric dilatation-volvulus, trauma, multiple diseases, neoplasia, or toxicosis. The corresponding lunar phase was calculated and recorded as new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last quarter, or waning crescent. The effect of lunar phase on the frequency of emergency visits was evaluated by calculating relative risk.
Results—Of 11,940 cases, 9,407 were canine and 2,533 were feline. Relative risk calculations identified a significant increase in emergencies for dogs and cats on fuller moon days (waxing gibbous to waning gibbous), compared with all other days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that more emergency room visits occurred on fuller moon days for dogs and cats. It is unlikely that an attending clinician would notice the fractional increase in visits (0.59 and 0.13 more canine and feline visits, respectively) observed in this study at a facility with a low caseload. If the study is repeated at a facility with a robust emergency caseload, these results may lead to reorganization of staffing on fuller moon dates. A prospective study evaluating these findings under conditions of high caseload is necessary to determine the clinical relevance.
Case Description—A 6-year-old castrated male Llewelyn Setter was evaluated because of an acute onset of myalgia and respiratory distress.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed a stiff stilted gait, swollen muscles that appeared to cause signs of pain, panting, and ptyalism. The dog had a decrease in palpebral reflexes bilaterally and a decrease in myotatic reflexes in all 4 limbs. The panniculus reflex was considered normal, and all other cranial nerve reflexes were intact. Serum biochemical analysis revealed markedly high cardiac troponin-I concentration and creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Urinalysis revealed myoglobinuria. Results for thoracic and abdominal radiography, blood pressure measurement, and an ECG were within anticipated limits. Echocardiographic findings were consistent with secondary systolic myocardial failure. Arterial blood gas analysis confirmed hypoxemia and hypoventilation. The dog had negative results when tested for infectious diseases. Examination of skeletal muscle biopsy specimens identified necrotizing myopathy.
Treatment and Outcome—Treatment included ventilatory support; IV administration of an electrolyte solution supplemented with potassium chloride; administration of dantrolene; vasopressor administration; parenteral administration of nutrients; use of multimodal analgesics; administration of clindamycin, furosemide, mannitol, and enrofloxacin; and dietary supplementation with L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10. Other medical interventions were not required, and the dog made a rapid and complete recovery.
Clinical Relevance—Necrotizing myopathy resulting in rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria can lead to life-threatening physical and biochemical abnormalities. Making a correct diagnosis is essential, and patients require intensive supportive care. The prognosis can be excellent for recovery, provided there is no secondary organ dysfunction.
Objective—To identify the prevalence of DNA of Mycoplasma haemofelis; ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; and species of Bartonella, Neorickettsia, and Ehrlichia in blood of cats used as blood donors in the United States. Design—Prospective study.
Animals—146 cats that were active blood donors.
Procedures—Environmental history was requested for each blood-donor cat from which a blood sample (mixed with EDTA) was available. Polymerase chain reaction assays capable of amplifying the DNA of the microorganisms of interest following DNA extraction from blood were performed.
Results—Overall, DNA of one or more of the infectious agents was detected in blood samples from 16 of 146 (11%) feline blood donors. Twenty-eight laboratory-reared cats housed in a teaching hospital had negative results for DNA of all organisms investigated. The DNA of at least 1 infectious agent was amplified from blood samples collected from 16 of 118 (13.6%) community-source cats; assay results were positive for ‘Candidatus M haemominutum,’ M haemofelis, or Bartonella henselae alone or in various combinations. Of the community-source cats allowed outdoors (n = 61) or with known flea exposure (44), DNA for a hemoplasma or B henselae was detected in 21.3% and 22.7%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When community-source cats, cats allowed outdoors, or cats exposed to fleas are to be used as blood donors, they should be regularly assessed for infection with M haemofelis, ‘Candidatus M haemominutum,’ and Bartonella spp, and flea-control treatment should be regularly provided.
To assess signalment, clinical findings, and treatments for New World camelids (NWCs) hospitalized for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders and investigate associations between these factors and death during and after hospitalization.
267 NWCs ≤ 30 days of age.
Medical records of a veterinary teaching hospital were retrospectively reviewed to identify NWCs admitted for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders between 2000 and 2010. Signalment, physical examination data, diagnostic findings, treatments, and outcomes were recorded. Factors were examined for association with death during hospitalization and the overall hazard of death by use of multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis, respectively.
The sample comprised alpacas (n = 255) and llamas (12). Median age at admission was 3 days, and median hospitalization time was 2 days; 208 of the 267 (77.9%) neonatal NWCs survived to hospital discharge. Factors associated with increased odds of death during hospitalization included prematurity or dysmaturity, hypothermia, sepsis, toxic changes in neutrophils, and undergoing surgery. The odds of death during hospitalization also increased as anion gap increased. After discharge, 151 of 176 (85.8%) animals had follow-up information available (median follow-up time, 2,932 days); 126 (83%) were alive and 25 (17%) had died. Prematurity or dysmaturity, congenital defects, sepsis, oxygen administration, and undergoing surgery as a neonate were associated with an increased hazard of death; the hazard of death also increased as serum chloride concentration at the time of hospitalization increased.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested the prognosis for survival during and after hospitalization is good for most NWCs hospitalized because of neonatal disorders.
Objective—To compare outcome and intermediateterm
survival for dogs undergoing open surgical correction
of subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) with those
for dogs with SAS that did not undergo surgery.
Animals—44 dogs with congenital SAS.
Procedure—Maximum instantaneous systolic pressure
gradients were determined by use of Doppler
echocardiography. Cardiopulmonary bypass and open
surgical correction of SAS (membranectomy with or
without septal myectomy) was performed in 22 dogs,
whereas 22 dogs did not undergo surgical correction.
Cumulative survival was compared between surgical
and nonsurgical groups, using Kaplan-Meier nonparametric
analysis and a Mantel-Cox log-rank test.
Results—Initial systolic pressure gradients were not
significantly different for dogs undergoing surgery (128
± 55 mm Hg), compared with those that did not undergo
surgery (117 ± 57 mm Hg). Systolic pressure gradients
were significantly decreased after surgery in
dogs that underwent surgery (54 ± 27 mm Hg).
Cumulative survival was not significantly different
between dogs in the surgical and nonsurgical groups.
Censoring surgery-related mortality in the analysis still
did not reveal a significant difference in cumulative survival
between the surgical and nonsurgical groups.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Despite
reductions in the systolic pressure gradient and possible
associated improvement in exercise tolerance, a
palliative benefit on survival was not documented in
dogs undergoing surgery for SAS. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To evaluate changes in resting energy
expenditure (REE) as well as protein and carbohydrate
metabolism in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).
Animals—15 weight-stable dogs with OSA that did
not have other concurrent metabolic or endocrine illness
and twelve 1-year-old sexually intact female
Beagles (control dogs).
Procedures—Indirect calorimetry was performed on
all dogs to determine REE and respiratory quotient
(RQ). Stable isotope tracers (15N-glycine, 4.5 mg/kg of
body weight, IV; 6,6-deuterium-glucose, 4.5 mg/kg, IV
as a bolus, followed by continuous-rate infusion at 1.5
mg/kg/h for 3 hours) were used to determine rate of
protein synthesis and glucose flux in all dogs. Dualenergy
x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were performed
to determine total body composition.
Results—Accounting for metabolic body size, REE in
dogs with OSA was significantly higher before and
after surgery, compared with REE of healthy control
dogs. The RQ values did not differ significantly
between groups. Dogs with OSA also had decreased
rates of protein synthesis, increased urinary nitrogen
loss, and increased glucose flux during the postoperative
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in
energy expenditure, protein synthesis, urinary nitrogen
loss, and carbohydrate flux were evident in dogs
with OSA, similar to results documented in humans
with neoplasia. Changes were documented in REE as
well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism in dogs
with OSA. These changes were evident even in dogs
that did not have clinical signs of cachexia. (Am J Vet