OBJECTIVE To evaluate the potential usefulness of epiduroscopy for clinical diagnosis and treatment of vertebral canal and spinal cord lesions in dogs.
SAMPLE Cadavers of 6 mixed-breed dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency, and an endoscope was introduced into the lumbosacral epidural space. A fiberscope (diameter, 0.9 mm; length, 30 cm) was used for 3 dogs, and a videoscope (diameter, 2.8 mm; length, 70 cm) was used for the other 3 dogs. Visibility and identities of anatomic structures were recorded, and maneuverability of the endoscopes was assessed. Extent of macroscopic tissue damage was evaluated by manual dissection of the vertebral canal at the end of the procedure.
RESULTS Intermittent saline (0.9% NaCl) solution infusion, CO2 insufflation, and endoscope navigation improved visualization by separating the epidural fat from the anatomic structures of interest. Images obtained with the fiberscope were small and of poor quality, making identification of specific structures difficult. Maneuverability of the fiberscope was difficult, and target structures could not be reliably reached or identified. Maneuverability and image quality of the videoscope were superior, and spinal nerve roots, spinal dura mater, epidural fat, and blood vessels could be identified. Subsequent manual dissection of the vertebral canal revealed no gross damage in the spinal cord, nerve roots, or blood vessels.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2.8-mm videoscope was successfully used to perform epiduroscopy through the lumbosacral space in canine cadavers. Additional refinement and evaluation of the technique in live dogs is necessary before its use can be recommended for clinical situations.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of recovery from general anesthesia in horses after induction with propofol and ketamine versus midazolam and ketamine.
DESIGN Prospective randomized crossover study.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Horses were premedicated with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IV), and general anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IV) or propofol (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], IV), followed by ketamine (3.0 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb], IV). Horses were endotracheally intubated, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. After 60 minutes, horses were given romifidine (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IV) and allowed to recover unassisted. Times to first movement, sternal recumbency, and standing and the number of attempts to stand were recorded. Plasma concentrations of propofol or midazolam were measured following induction and immediately before recovery. Recovery quality was scored by 3 graders with a recovery rubric and a visual analog scale.
RESULTS Number of attempts to stand was significantly lower when horses received propofol (median, 2; range, 1 to 3) than when they received midazolam (median, 7.5; range, 3 to 16). For both the recovery rubric and visual analog scale, recovery quality was significantly better when horses received propofol than when they received midazolam. Plasma drug concentration at recovery, as a percentage of the concentration at induction, was significantly lower when horses received propofol than when they received midazolam.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that for horses undergoing short (ie, 60 minutes) periods of general anesthesia, recovery quality may be better following induction with propofol and ketamine, compared with midazolam and ketamine.