Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.
Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp
Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media
Results—Of the 3 unique Salmonella disease phenotypes observed in cattle, only protozoa-mediated hypervirulence was observed in pigs. Hypervirulence was related to a more rapid onset of disease and higher pathogen burden in pigs than in cattle. This phenotype was observed in pigs inoculated with multiresistant Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium or Choleraesuis bearing the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) integron.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Salmonella hypervirulence was identified in pigs noculated with SGI1-bearing strains exposed to free-living protozoa. Additionally, an SGI1-bearing strain of Salmonella Choleraesuis was detected that resulted in augmented virulence in pigs. Therefore, it appeared that protozoa-associated salmonellosis was analogous in pigs and cattle. Salmonella-mediated encephalopathy and multisystemic cytopathicity did not appear to be relevant diseases in pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1170-1177)