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  • Author or Editor: Tige H. Witsberger x
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A 2-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for lameness with an abnormal, short-strided gait of the left hind limb of unknown duration. Physical examination revealed laxity and crepitus on palpation of the right hip joint, relative prominence of the left greater trochanter, and a bony mass-like effect on palpation of the left thigh. The left hip joint had limited range of motion (approx 40°) and crepitus and abnormal fulcrum action of the limb during flexion and extension. Routine bloodwork (CBC and serum biochemical analyses) had been performed 5 days prior to referral and did not reveal substantial abnormalities. Lateral

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether medial patellar luxation would affect radiographic tibial plateau angle (TPA) measurements in small-breed dogs.

DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 15 small-breed dogs (25 stifle joints) with grade 2 or 3 medial patellar luxation (5 dogs with unilateral luxation and 10 dogs with bilateral luxation).

PROCEDURES Digital mediolateral radiographic images of each affected stifle joint were acquired with the patella in manually reduced (n = 25) and luxated (25) positions. In 2 measurement sessions separated by > 48 hours, 3 observers unaware of patella status (luxated or reduced) measured the TPA in each image twice in random order. Mixed linear modeling was performed to determine the effect of patella status on TPA measurements, and intraobserver and interobserver variation in measurements were calculated.

RESULTS TPA measurements by all observers differed significantly between the first and second measurement sessions, but by a mean value of only 0.7°. A few significant differences were identified between 1 pair of observers by patella status and between patella statuses for 1 observer, but all mean differences were ≤ 1.7°. No significant difference in intraobserver variation was identified between patella statuses for any observer. Interobserver variation was not affected by patella status and measurement session.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although some significant differences were identified in radiographic TPA measurements in dogs with medial patellar luxation, depending on whether the patella was luxated or manually reduced, these differences were so small they could be considered clinically unimportant. Consequently, we believe that in small-breed dogs with patellar luxation, patella status would be unlikely to have a clinically meaningful effect on the measured TPA.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia (HD) and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency (CCLD) in dogs and determine change in prevalence over time.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—1,243,681 dogs for which information was reported to the Veterinary Medical Database between 1964 and 2003.

Procedures—Information on breed, sex, and age was collected, and prevalences and odds ratios were calculated.

Results—Castrated male dogs were significantly more likely than other dogs to have HD (odds ratio [OR], 1.21), and castrated male (OR, 1.68) and spayed female (OR, 2.35) dogs were significantly more likely to have CCLD. Dogs up to 4 years old were significantly more likely to have HD (OR for dogs 2 months to 1 year old, 1.22; OR for dogs > 1 to 4 years old, 1.48), whereas dogs > 4 years old were significantly more likely to have CCLD (OR for dogs > 4 to 7 years old, 1.82; OR for dogs > 7 years old, 1.48). In general, large- and giant-breed dogs were more likely than other dogs to have HD, CCLD, or both. Prevalences of HD and CCLD increased significantly over the 4 decades for which data were examined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that sex, age, and breed were risk factors for HD, CCLD, or both in dogs and that prevalences of HD and CCLD have increased over time.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine associations between CSF biomarkers, initial neurologic dysfunction, and long-term ambulatory outcome in dogs with acute intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH).

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—54 dogs with acute thoracolumbar IVDH and 16 clinically normal dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, variables, including CSF myelin basic protein (MBP), lactate, calcium, glucose, and total protein concentrations; nucleated cell count; and creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase activities, were measured. For dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH, initial neurologic function was characterized by use of a modified Frankel score (MFS; determined on a scale of 0 to 5, where 0 represented paraplegia with no deep nociception and 5 represented paraspinal hyperesthesia only). Long-term follow-up was assessed.

Results—Among dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH, those with CSF CK activity ≤ 38 U/L had a 35-fold increase in the odds of long-term ambulation, compared with the odds in dogs with CSF CK activity > 38 U/L, adjusting for neurologic functioning at the evaluation. The CSF lactate, calcium, and glucose concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were not predictive of long-term ambulatory outcome. Data analysis revealed that long-term functional recovery was > 98% for affected dogs, regardless of their initial MFS, when CSF CK activity was ≤ 38 U/L and MBP concentration was ≤ 3 ng/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with acute thoracolumbar IVDH, CSF CK activity and MBP concentration appeared to be prognostic indicators and, along with initial MFS, can be used to predict long-term ambulatory outcome.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association