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Objective

To determine to what extent humane organizations are receiving requests to take unwanted Vietnamese potbellied pigs and to determine whether owners of potbellied pigs are selling them for slaughter.

Design

Mail survey.

Sample Population

1,178 humane organizations in 7 states and 978 slaughter plants in 4 states.

Results

802 (68%) humane organizations and 787 (81%) slaughter plants responded. Of the humane organizations that responded, 479 (60%) stated they were willing to accept potbellied pigs. Humane organizations received 4,380 requests from owners to accept potbellied pigs during the study period and accepted 3,149 (72%) of these pigs. Six hundred fifteen (20%) of the potbellied pigs accepted were strays. Of the 437 humane organizations that provided reasons why owners relinquished their potbellied pigs, 255 (58%) reported larger than expected size, 148 (34%) reported zoning restrictions, and 82 (19%) reported aggression. Of 485 slaughter plants that normally slaughtered hogs, 255 (53%) had received requests to slaughter potbellied pigs. These plants slaughtered 2,640 and refused 1,407 potbellied pigs during the study period.

Clinical Implications

Problems with larger than expected size, zoning restrictions, and aggressive behavior caused owners of Vietnamese potbellied pigs to relinquish their pets to humane organizations and slaughter plants. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 211:562–565)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

We quantified the effect of passive immune status on pre- and postweaning health and growth performance of calves raised in a beef production environment. Blood samples were collected at postpartum hour 24 from 263 crossbred calves for determination of plasma protein (pp) and serum IgG concentrations. Serum IgG concentration was classified as adequate (> 1,600 mg/dl), marginal (800 to 1,600 mg/dl), or inadequate (< 800 mg/dl). Plasma protein concentration was classified as adequate (≥ 4.8 g/dl) or inadequate (< 4.8 g/dl). Morbidity and mortality events in the study population were monitored from birth to weaning, and after weaning throughout the feeding period. The lowest concentrations of serum IgG and pp were observed among calves that experienced morbidity or mortality prior to weaning. Calves that experienced morbidity in the feedlot had lower 24-hour pp values, but had IgG concentration similar to that in calves that were not observed to be ill during the feeding period. Calves classified as having inadequate IgG concentration were at greater risk of preweaning mortality (odds ratio [or] = 5.4), neonatal morbidity (or = 6.4), and preweaning morbidity (or = 3.2), compared with calves classified as having adequate IgG concentration at 24 hours. Calves classified as having inadequate pp concentration at 24 hours had a greater risk of morbidity (or = 3.0) and respiratory tract morbidity (or = 3.1) while in the feedlot, compared with calves classified as having adequate pp concentration. The effects of 24-hour passive immune status on calf growth were indirect through effects on morbidity outcomes. Morbidity during the first 28 days of life was associated with a 16-kg lower expected weaning weight. Respiratory morbidity in the feedlot resulted in a 0.04-kg lower expected mean daily gain. Thus, passive immune status at postpartum hour 24 was an important determinant of health before and after weaning, and was indirectly associated with calf growth during the same periods.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

In this study, we found that the rate at which radiographically diagnosed simultaneous pleural and peritoneal effusions (double effusions [de]) developed was highest in dogs and cats with infectious causes of pleuritis and/or peritonitis and in those with pancreatitis. However, de were observed more frequently in dogs and cats with neoplastic and cardiovascular diseases. Nonneoplastic liver disease was also documented as a cause of de in the population of this study. Frequency of de was increased in males and in animals > 6 years old. The finding of simultaneous pleural and peritoneal effusions can be considered an indicator of disease severity, and warrants a poor to grave prognosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

In an attempt to identify important predictors of failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer (< 800 mg of IgG/dl), identify calves with failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer, and determine the effects of a colostrum supplement, blood samples were collected from 263 calves at postpartum hours 10 and 24. Calves of dams diagnosed with mastitis had lower mean plasma protein and IgG concentrations at 10 (P < 0.05) and 24 (P < 0.01) hours. Plasma protein and IgG concentrations were similar for single and twin calves at 10 hours, but IgG concentration at 24 hours was higher (P < 0.01) in twin calves. Calves born to dams that had dystocia had numerically lower mean plasma protein and IgG concentrations than did calves born to dams that had normal delivery. However, observed differences were small and, after adjustment for other important factors, these differences were not significant. Age of dam was associated with plasma protein (P < 0.05) and IgG (P < 0.10) concentrations at 10 hours, but had no effect at 24 hours. Plasma protein and IgG concentrations decreased as calves were born later in the calving season, although the association of birth date with IgG concentration at 24 hours was marginal (P = 0.07). Calf sex, dam body condition score, and birth weight were not related to plasma protein or IgG values. The sensitivity and specificity of a cutoff value of 4.8 g of protein/dl of plasma, measured at 10 hours, for diagnosing failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer at 10 hours were 78 and 94%, and for diagnosing failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer at 24 hours were 88 and 73%, respectively. A colostrum supplement administered to calves with low plasma protein concentration at 10 hours had no effect on plasma protein or IgG values at 24 hours or on pre-weaning morbidity and mortality.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in the fecal flora of conventionally raised feedlot steers and feedlot steers raised without antimicrobials.

Sample Population—61 fecal samples from conventionally raised steers and 61 fecal samples from steers raised without antimicrobials at a single feedlot.

Procedures—Total DNA was extracted from each fecal sample and analyzed by means of 4 multiplex PCR assays for 14 tetracycline resistance genes.

Results—At least 3 tetracycline resistance genes were identified in all 122 fecal samples. For 5 of the 14 tetracycline resistance genes, the percentage of samples in which the gene was detected was significantly higher for fecal samples from conventionally raised cattle than for fecal samples from antimicrobial-free cattle, and for 1 gene, the percent-age of samples in which the gene was detected was significantly higher for fecal samples from antimicrobial-free cattle than for fecal samples from conventionally raised cattle. The percentage of samples with r 11 tetracycline resistance genes was significantly higher for fecal samples from conventionally raised cattle (35/61 [57%]) than for fecal samples from antimicrobial-free cattle (16/61 [26%]).

Conclusions and Relevance—Results suggested that the prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes was significantly higher in the fecal flora of conventionally raised feedlot steers than in the fecal flora of feedlot steers raised without antimicrobials and that a metagenomic approach may be useful in understanding the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in food animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate various sampling strategies for potential use in measuring prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibility in cattle.

Sample Population—500 isolates of non–type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolated from the feces of 50 cows from 2 dairy farms (25 cows/farm and 10 isolates/cow).

Procedures—Diameters of inhibition zones for 12 antimicrobials were analyzed to estimate variation among isolates, cows, and farms and then used to determine sampling distributions for a stochastic simulation model to evaluate 4 sampling strategies. These theoretic sampling strategies used a total of 100 isolates in 4 allocations (1 isolate from 100 cows, 2 isolates from 50 cows, 3 isolates from 33 cows, or 4 isolates from 25 cows).

Results—Analysis of variance composition revealed that 74.2% of variation was attributable to isolates, 18.5% to cows, and 7.3% to farms. Analysis of results of simulations suggested that when most of the variance was attributable to differences among isolates within a cow, culturing 1 isolate from each of 100 cows underestimated overall prevalence, compared with results for culturing more isolates per cow from fewer cows. When variance was not primarily attributable to differences among isolates, all 4 sampling strategies yielded similar results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It is not always possible to predict the hierarchical level at which clustering will have its greatest impact on observed susceptibility distributions. Results suggested that sampling strategies that use testing of 3 or 4 isolates/cow from a representative sample of all animals better characterize herd prevalence of antimicrobial resistance when impacted by clustering.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of Salmonella spp in Ohio dairy farms and to identify potential risk factors for fecal shedding of salmonellae.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—105 Ohio dairy farms.

Procedure—Individual fecal samples from all mature cows in study herds were tested for Salmonella spp by use of standard bacteriologic culture procedures. Herds were identified as infected if at least 1 cow was shedding Salmonella spp. Information regarding herd characteristics, management practices, and health history were collected. Potential risk factors for herd-level Salmonella infection were identified.

Results—In 31% of the study herds (95% confidence interval, 22 to 40%), at least 1 cow was shedding Salmonella spp. Six percent of 7,776 fecal samples contained Salmonella organisms; prevalence within infected herds ranged from < 1 to 97%. Herd size, use of free stalls for lactating and nonlactating cows, and use of straw bedding in nonlactating cows were significantly associated with fecal shedding of Salmonella spp, as determined by use of univariate analysis . By use of multivariate analysis, large herds were more likely to be infected than smaller herds; however, no other factors were associated with Salmonella infection after adjustment for herd size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subclinical shedding of Salmonella spp is common in Ohio dairy herds, although we could not identify specific interventions that may influence the prevalence of Salmonella spp on dairy farms. It appears that large herd size and intensive management may provide an environment conducive to Salmonella shedding and chronic dairy herd infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:645–649)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To monitor patterns of Salmonella fecal shedding in naturally infected dairy herds, determine the association between fecal shedding and individual animal production measures, and evaluate potential risk factors for shedding of Salmonella organisms among cattle in dairy herds.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Sample Population—5 Ohio dairy herds.

Procedure—For 3 herds, fecal samples were collected from all mature cows and unweaned calves 7 times during an 18-month period. For the remaining 2 herds, fecal samples were collected from 50 lactating cows 6 times during a 12-month period. Individual animal production records for 3 herds were used to examine associations between individual fecal Salmonella shedding status and 305-day matureequivalent milk production, somatic cell count, milk fat content, and milk protein content. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test for associations between fecal shedding status and breed, lactation status, lactation number, and duration of lactation.

Results—None of the adult animals had clinical signs of salmonellosis, but prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding at individual collection times ranged from 0 to 99% for cows and from 0 to 67% for unweaned calves. Mature cows were more likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms than were unweaned calves. Within herds, lactation status and duration of lactation for individual animals were associated with Salmonella shedding status. Salmonella fecal shedding status was not associated with individual cow production measures.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that subclinical fecal Salmonella shedding can persist in dairy herds for up to 18 months with no measurable effects on health or production of individual cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:650–655)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bulk-tank standard plate counts or plate loop counts and bulk-tank somatic cell counts (SCC) were associated with detection of violative antimicrobial residues in milk from dairy cattle.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Procedure—Information for 1994 through 1997 was obtained from a large milk marketing cooperative that operated in multiple states throughout the northeastern and midwestern United States (16,831 herd-years of information from 6,546 farms) and from the Ohio Department of Agriculture Grade-A Milk Certification Program (12,042 herd-years of information from 4,022 farms). Data were analyzed by use of multivariate logistic regression.

Results—For both data sets, odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be detected increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased. Standard plate counts and plate loop counts were not associated with odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that the odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be found in bulk-tank milk increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased. This suggests that management practices that would be expected to influence SCC may also influence the risk of antibiotic residue violations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:541–545)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service at a veterinary teaching hospital and evaluate the response of dogs and cats with signs of pain to analgesic treatment.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—317 dogs and 112 cats.

Procedure—A questionnaire was used to categorize the characteristics of pain. The location, cause, and signs of pain were determined by obtaining a thorough history and conducting a physical examination. Pain was categorized by type (superficial somatic, deep somatic, or visceral), mechanism (inflammatory, neuropathic, or both), severity (mild, moderate, or severe), and duration. Evidence for primary or secondary hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to manipulation was determined. The response to single or multiple analgesic drug administration was assessed.

Results—179 (56%) dogs and 60 (54%) cats had signs of pain. In most of these dogs and cats, pain was classified as acute (< 24 hours' duration) and of moderate severity and was associated with primary hypersensitivity. Most dogs had deep somatic pain; most cats had visceral pain. Inflammation was the most common mechanism. One hundred nineteen (66%) dogs and 41 (68%) cats were treated with analgesic drugs. Analgesic treatment was considered effective in 73 (61%) dogs and 31 (76%) cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that moderate to severe acute somatic pain caused by inflammation is common in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service and that a combination of multiple analgesic drugs is more effective than any single analgesic drug in the treatment of pain in these dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:2004–2009)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association