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  • Author or Editor: Thomas W. Molitor x
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Summary

Antibody titer to Ehrlichia risticii was determined, in 2,549 equine serum samples, using an indirect fluorescent antibody assay. During 1986, samples were obtained from the Minnesota State-Federal Equine Infectious Anemia Diagnostic Laboratory, the Minnesota Racing Laboratory, from horses admitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Teaching Hospital, and as a result of field investigations of horses with acute diarrhea. Results of the study revealed antibody prevalence of 33, 24, 47, and 25% for the respective groups. There was no statistical association between seropositive status and age, sex, breed, or clinical problem of horses referred to the teaching hospital. There was an increase in the total percentage of seropositive samples over the duration of the sample collection period, suggesting a seasonal exposure pattern, and E risticii was associated with clinical and subclinical infections in horses of Minnesota.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

We compared 3 modified-live pseudorabies virus (PRV) vaccine strains, administered by the intranasal (IN) or IM routes to 4- to 6-week-old pigs, to determine the effect of high- and low-challenge doses in these vaccinated pigs. At the time of vaccination, all pigs had passively acquired antibodies to PRV. Four experiments were conducted. Four weeks after vaccination, pigs were challenge-exposed IN with virulent virus strain Iowa S62. In experiments 1 and 2, a high challenge exposure dose (105.3 TCID50) was used, whereas in experiments 3 and 4, a lower challenge exposure dose (102.8 TCID50) was used. This low dose was believed to better simulate field conditions. After challenge exposure, pigs were evaluated for clinical signs of disease, weight gain, serologic response, and viral shedding.

When vaccinated pigs were challenge-exposed with a high dose of PRV, the duration of viral shedding was significantly (P < 0.05) lower, and body weight gain was greater in vaccinated pigs, compared with nonvaccinated challenge-exposed pigs. Pigs vaccinated IN shed PRV for fewer days than pigs vaccinated IM, but this difference was not significant. When vaccinated pigs were challenge-exposed with a low dose, significantly (P <0.05) fewer pigs vaccinated IN (51%) shed PRV, compared with pigs vaccinated IM (77%), or nonvaccinated pigs (94%). Additionally, the duration of viral shedding was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in pigs vaccinated IN, compared with pigs vaccinated IM or nonvaccinated pigs. The high challenge exposure dose of PRV may have overwhelmed the local immune response and diminished the advantages of the IN route of vaccination. Repeatable difference in the effect of vaccine strain was not detected in pigs challenge-exposed with low- or high-PRV doses. These findings suggested that the dose of challenge virus is critical for determining the effectiveness of vaccination in reducing the prevalence and duration of viral shedding after PRV infection, and that the route of vaccination plays a more important role than vaccine strain.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Data were collected from 104 Minnesota swine farms quarantined for pseudorabies virus (prv) infection. Each herd was serologically evaluated for the presence of antibodies to prv in finishing pigs. Herd management practices, swine housing design, and disease profiles were described for each farm. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with circulation of prv in the finishing pigs of farrow-to-finish farms. Sixty-seven (64%) of the herds had no serologic evidence of prv circulation in the finishing section, whereas 37 herds (36%) contained at least one prv seropositive finishing pig. The odds of a given finishing herd being seropositive for prv were 2.85 times higher if the finishing pigs were housed in confinement (P = 0.01), 2 times higher if Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae was a clinical problem in the herd (P = 0.03), 1.36 times less for each year that passed since the herd quarantine was issued (P = 0.01), 1.74 times higher if clinical signs of prv were reported (P = 0.04), and 1.52 times higher if animal protein was included in at least one of the rations (P = 0.08).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association