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  • Author or Editor: Thomas R. Klei x
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SUMMARY

Blood culture and serologic testing were used to study the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a group of 85 dogs from southern Louisiana rural environment. These dogs were known to have been in contact with wild mammalian hosts of the hemoflagellate. Results were compared with blood culture and serologic test results in 103 dogs from a rural environment and with limited known wild mammalian T cruzi host contact. Serologic test results for the 188 dogs from the rural environment were compared with results for 176 dogs from an urban animal shelter and for 100 household pet dogs from an urban southern Louisiana environment. Blood culture was not performed on urban dogs. Culture results were negative in all dogs from rural environments. Serologic evidence of infection was obtained for 4 of the 85 (4.7%) dogs of rural environment with known host contact. Of 176 dogs from the animal shelter, 4 (2.3%) had high antibody titer to T cruzi, and 11 others had low titer (< 2 adjusted elisa units [aEU]). Two and 4 dogs of the housed urban and rural groups, respectively, had antibody titer to T cruzi that was < 2 aEU. Results indicate that prevalence for exposure to T cruzi antigen is higher in dogs with high potential contact with the vector and wild mammalian hosts of T cruzi, whether they are from rural or urban environment. Furthermore, results indicate that similar studies on high-risk human populations may be indicated.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Nineteen purebred Beagles of various ages (4, 5, 13, and 47 weeks) were inoculated with North American Trypanosoma cruzi isolates obtained from an opossum (Tc-O), an armadillo (Tc-A), or a dog (Tc-D). Dogs were grouped on the basis of clinical outcome of infection. During the acute stage of disease, dogs of group 1 (n = 7 inoculated with Tc-O or Tc-A) died or were euthanatized because of the severity of disease. Dogs of group 2 (n = 5 inoculated with Tc-O or Tc-A) developed acute disease, but survived to develop chronic disease. Dogs of group 3 (n = 7 Tc-Dinoculated dogs) developed neither acute nor chronic disease. Dogs of group 4 (n = 4—2 dogs 13 weeks old and 2 dogs 47 weeks old) served as noninoculated controls.

Clinical signs associated with severe acute myocarditis developed in dogs of groups 1 and 2 between postinoculation day (pid) 15 and 28. Generalized lymphadenopathy and lymphocytosis were observed in all dogs of groups 1, 2, and 3 between pid 14 and 17. Serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities and urea nitrogen concentration were high, and glucose concentration was low prior to death of dogs in group 1. Serum activities of isoenzymes of creatine kinase were significantly (P < 0.05) high in only 1 dog (group 1), whereas serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme activities were not significantly high in any dog. Parasitemia was detected by examination of thick blood smears as early as pid 3, peaked by pid 17 in most dogs, and was not detected by pid 33 in dogs of groups 1 and 2. Parasitemia was documented by blood culture results in dogs of groups 2 and 3 at various times throughout the study. Dogs infected at an older age generally had lesser degree of parasitemia and higher survival rate than did dogs infected at a younger age.

Dogs of group 2 did not manifest clinical signs of disease for 27 to 120 days prior to onset of chronic disease. Ventricular-based arrhythmias and exercise intolerance developed in all dogs of group 2 at various times by pid 120. Two dogs developed signs of biventricular heart failure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Purebred Beagles were inoculated with Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from a North American opossum or armadillo (Tc-W), and dog (Tc-D). Although Tc-D established infection in dogs, the dogs did not develop cardiac abnormalities. Dogs inoculated with Tc-W developed acute myocarditis associated with increases in P-R interval, atrioventricular block, depression of R wave amplitude and shifts in mean electrical axis. Echocardiograms were normal during this stage. Three Tc-W-inoculated dogs died during the acute stage. Following the acute stage, 5 of 8 Tc-W-inoculated dogs entered an indeterminate stage in which ecg changes were minor and echocardiograms were normal. Progression to the chronic stage in 5 of the 8 Tc-W-inoculated dogs was indicated by development of ventricular-based arrhythmias, mainly ventricular premature contractions, between postinoculation days 60 and 170. In some dogs, ventricular premature contractions were multifocal. Electrocardiographic abnormalities progressively degenerated to various forms of ventricular tachycardia. Worsening ecg coincided with loss of left ventricular function as measured by echocardiography. Mean percent ejection fraction and percentage of fractional shortening decreased to 63% and 52% of control values, respectively. The left ventricular free wall (lvfw) thickness decreased and % septal: % lvfw thickening ratio increased, indicating a relative preservation of septal wall motion and lvfw hypokinesis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Twenty-three clinically normal Beagles were inoculated with North American Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from an opossum (Tc-O), an armadillo (Tc-A), or a dog (Tc-D). The dogs were grouped according to the clinical outcome of inoculation. Group 1 consisted of 7 dogs inoculated with Tc-O or Tc-A that died or were euthanatized during acute stages of disease. Group 2 consisted of 5 dogs inoculated with Tc-O or Tc-A, that also developed acute disease, but survived to develop chronic disease. Group 3 consisted of 7 dogs inoculated with Tc-D neither developed acute nor chronic disease. Group 4 consisted of 4 dogs and served as noninoculated controls.

In group 1, the gross lesions were diffusely pale myocardiums with right ventricular enlargement, hepatomegaly, and a moderate amount of modified transudate in the abdominal cavity. Severe diffuse granulomatous myocarditis with large numbers of pseudocysts and minimal fibrosis characterized the tissues from all cardiac chambers and septum. The lesions were most severe in the right atrium and ventricle. Mild multifocal myositis and pseudocysts were observed in skeletal muscles and smooth muscles of the urinary bladder and small intestine. Multifocal encephalitis and pseudocysts were in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem.

In group 2, the gross lesions were biventricular enlargement and thinning of the ventricular free walls. The right ventricle contained the most severe microscopic changes. There were mild multifocal interstitial lymphohistiocytic cellular infiltrates, perivasculitis, and marked fibrosis in all areas of the myocardium. Mild myositis and multifocal encephalitis were seen in the skeletal muscles and brains. Pseudocysts were not observed in any tissues.

In group 3, there was mild biventricular dilatation, minimal inflammation with fibrosis in cardiac tissues, and a multifocal myositis in most skeletal muscles. Multifocal encephalitis was seen in the brain stem. Pseudocysts were not observed in any tissues. Lesions were not found in group 4.

Our results indicated heterogeneity between North American T cruzi isolates in lesion development in dogs, and there appeared to be a temporal relationship between acute and chronic trypanosomiasis in Tc-O- and Tc-A-inoculated dogs and the 3 phases of Chagas disease in human beings.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostome nematodes of horses in the southern United States.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—786 horses on 44 farms and stables in Georgia, South Carolina, Florida, Kentucky, and Louisiana.

Procedure—Fecal egg count (FEC) reduction tests were performed on 44 large farms and stables. Horses on each farm were treated with an oral paste formulation of fenbendazole, oxibendazole, pyrantel pamoate, or ivermectin at recommended label dosages. A mixed linear model was fitted to the percentage reduction in FEC, accounting for differences among farms, states, ages, treatments, and treatment by state interactions.

Results—By use of a conservative measure of resistance (< 80% reduction), the percentage of farms with anthelmintic-resistant cyathostomes was 97.7%, 0%, 53.5%, and 40.5% for fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate, respectively. Mean percentage reductions in FEC for all farms were 24.8%, 99.9%, 73.8%, and 78.6% for fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate, respectively. Pairwise contrasts between states for each treatment revealed that in almost all instances, there were no significant differences in results between states.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence of resistance found in this study was higher than that reported previously, suggesting that anthelmintic resistance in equine cyathostomes is becoming a major problem. Furthermore, data from these 5 southern states, which are geographically and physiographically distinct, were remarkably similar. This suggests that drug resistance in cyathostomes is highly prevalent throughout the entire southern United States and probably nationwide. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:903–910)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association