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A 4-year-old 636.4-kg (1,400-lb) Brangus bull was admitted in the middle of May to the J. T. Vaughan Large Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of lameness. Physical examination revealed that the source of the lameness was a subsolar abscess of the lateral claw of the left hind limb. The bull was hospitalized for further treatment.

During a routine physical examination, scrotal asymmetry was noticed as an incidental finding unrelated to the lameness. The left hemiscrotum was larger than the right, and asymmetry of the scrotal contents was attributed to a palpable 4-cm firm mass on the dorsolateral pole of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated for left hind limb lameness of 2 months' duration. The lameness was first noticed during a rodeo bucking performance, immediately after the bull appeared to land inappropriately on the affected limb.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination findings revealed left hind limb lameness, ataxia, and left-sided epaxial muscle atrophy. Palpation per rectum along the lumbar portion of the vertebral column revealed evidence of exostosis of the ventral aspect. High-definition infrared thermal imaging revealed a pattern of reduced skin temperature in the area of the left lumbar and gluteal regions suggestive of a disruption in the sympathetic control of peripheral blood flow. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed a focal area of increased radioisotope uptake on the left ventrolateral aspect of the L2–3 intervertebral joint. A presumptive diagnosis of ventrolateral vertebral spondylosis resulting in spinal nerve impingement was made.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 200 mg of methylprednisolone was epidurally injected at the site of the lesion, and treatment with polysulfated glycosaminoglycans was initiated (500 mg, IM, every 4 days for 7 treatments, then monthly thereafter). The lameness and ataxia observed in the left hind limb resolved within 1 week after treatment began. Subsequently, the bull was discharged from the hospital and was used successfully for semen collection and live-cover breeding.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of thermography for the bull of this report provided additional insight into neurovascular physiologic function that classical imaging modalities are unable to provide and, when combined with nuclear scintigraphy, aided in identifying the most critical lesion in a complex clinical case.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg).

PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 106 TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day −7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days −7 to −1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers.

RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine titers of serum antibodies against 3 genotypes of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) in unvaccinated ungulates in Alabama.

ANIMALS 62 cattle, goats, and New World camelids from 5 distinct herds and 21 captured white-tailed deer.

PROCEDURES Serum samples were obtained from all animals for determination of anti-BPI3V antibody titers, which were measured by virus neutralization assays that used indicator (reference) viruses from each of the 3 BPI3V genotypes (BPI3V-A, BPI3V-B, and BPI3V-C). The reference strains were recent clinical isolates from US cattle. Each sample was assayed in triplicate for each genotype. Animals with a mean antibody titer ≤ 2 for a particular genotype were considered seronegative for that genotype.

RESULTS Animals seropositive for antibodies against BPI3V were identified in 2 of 3 groups of cattle and the group of New World camelids. The geometric mean antibody titer against BPI3V-B was significantly greater than that for BPI3V-A and BPI3V-C in all 3 groups. All goats, captive white-tailed deer, and cattle in the third cattle group were seronegative for all 3 genotypes of the virus.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that BPI3V-A may no longer be the predominant genotype circulating among ungulates in Alabama. This may be clinically relevant because BPI3V is frequently involved in the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease complex, current vaccines contain antigens against BPI3V-A only, and the extent of cross-protection among antibodies against the various BPI3V genotypes is unknown.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of 4 commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in early-weaned beef calves.

ANIMALS 54 early-weaned beef steers (median age, 95 days).

PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and administered PBSS (group A [control]; n = 11) or 1 of 4 commercially available modified-live virus vaccines that contained antigens against BHV1, BVDV types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (groups B [11], C [10], D [11], and E [11]). Forty-five days after vaccination, calves were exposed simultaneously to 6 cattle persistently infected with BVDV and 8 calves acutely infected with BHV1 for 28 days (challenge exposure). For each calf, serum antibody titers against BVDV and BHV1 were determined before vaccination and before and after challenge exposure. Virus isolation was performed on nasal secretions, serum, and WBCs at predetermined times during the 28-day challenge exposure.

RESULTS None of the calves developed severe clinical disease or died. Mean serum anti-BHV1 antibody titers did not differ significantly among the treatment groups at any time and gradually declined during the study. Mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers appeared to be negatively associated with the incidence of viremia and BVDV shedding. The unvaccinated group (A) had the lowest mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers. The mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers for group D were generally lower than those for groups B, C, and E.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated differences in vaccine efficacy for the prevention of BVDV viremia and shedding in early-weaned beef calves.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research