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Objective

To determine whether distraction index (DI), a measure of passive hip joint laxity, at 2 months of age was predictive of DI at 4 or 12 months of age in German Shepherd Dogs.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Animals

45 German Shepherd Dogs.

Procedure

DI was measured at 2, 4, and 12 months of age. At the same times, a standard ventrodorsal radiographic projection of the pelvis with the hip joints extended was obtained and examined for evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD). To facilitate radiographic positioning, dogs were sedated or anesthetized.

Results

DI at 2 months of age was not significantly correlated with DI at 4 or 12 months of age. However, DI at 4 months of age was correlated with DI at 12 months of age. The proportion of dogs with DI ≥ 0.3 at 12 months of age that had radiographic evidence of DJD by 12 months of age (13/22; 59%) was significantly greater than the proportion of dogs with DI < 0.3 at 12 months of age that had radiographic evidence of DJD by 12 months of age (1/9; 11 %).

Clinical Implications

For German Shepherd Dogs, DI at 2 months of age was not sufficiently reliable to predict DI at 4 and 12 months of age; however, DI at 4 and 12 months of age were comparable. We recommend that, for German Shepherd Dogs, DI not be measured before 4 months of age and that particularly for breeding dogs, DI be remeasured after maturity to confirm DI obtained at earlier ages. Studies including other breeds of dogs should be done to determine the youngest reliable age to initiate hip joint screening. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1560–1563)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe and evaluate hemostatic function in critically ill dogs with clinical signs of diseases that predispose to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Design

Prospective case series.

Animals

59 critically ill dogs (affected dogs) with clinical signs of diseases known to predispose to DIC and 52 clinically normal dogs (control dogs).

Procedure

Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin clotting time (TCT), plasma fibrinogen concentration, serum concentration of fibrin and fibrinogen-related antigens (FRA), and plasma antithrombin III (AT III) activity were determined for all dogs. Results from affected dogs were compared with those of control dogs. In some affected dogs, postmortem tissue specimens were examined for evidence of microvascular thrombosis. A diagnosis of DIC was made by fulfilling at least 3 of the following criteria: 1) abnormal aPTT, PT, or TCT value, 2) low plasma fibrinogen concentration, 3) low plasma AT III activity, 4) high serum FRA concentration, or 5) low platelet count. To evaluate the severity of hemostatic dysfunction, 3 arbitrary categories (mild, moderate, and severe) were proposed.

Results

A diagnostic strategy based on moderate hemostatic dysfunction identified DIC in 16 of 59 (27.1%) affected dogs. The AT III activity was < 70% in 15 of 16 dogs with DIC. Microvascular thrombosis was observed in tissue specimens from 7 of 8 affected dogs. Serum FRA and plasma fibrinogen concena did not contribute in establishing a diagnosis of DIC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

A diagnosis of DIC can be made when hemostatic dysfunction is moderate in dogs with clinical signs of diseases associated with DIC. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:798–804).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the accuracy of point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in dogs and assess the correlation and agreement of results between point-of-care and laboratory tests in the evaluation of hemostatic function.

Design

Prospective case series.

Animals

59 critically ill dogs (affected dogs) with clinical signs of diseases known to predispose to DIC and 52 clinically normal dogs.

Procedures

Accuracy of the point-of-care tests (activated clotting time [ACT], estimated platelet count and number of schizocytes from a blood smear, plasma total solids [TS] concentration, and the protamine sulfate test) was evaluated, using receiver operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios. A strategy, using likelihood ratios to calculate a post-test probability of DIC, was tested with 65% used as a threshold for initiation of treatment. Results of laboratory tests (coagulogram and plasma antithrombin III activity) were used as the standard for comparison in each dog.

Results

ACT and estimated platelet count provided the best accuracy for detection of DIC. The plasma TS concentration, schizocyte number, and protamine sulfate test had poor accuracy. The strategy using post-test probability of DIC identified 12 of 16 affected dogs that had DIC. Estimated platelet count was correlated and had acceptable clinical agreement with automated platelet count (r = 0.70). The plasma TS (r = 0.28) concentration and serum albumin (r = 0.63) concentration were not accurate predictors of plasma antithrombin III activity. The ACT did not correlate with activated partial thromboplastin time (r = 0.28).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Strategic use of likelihood ratios from point-of-care tests can assist clinicians in making treatment decisions for dogs suspected to have DIC when immediate laboratory support is unavailable. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:805–810)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Four boars intranasally inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus were monitored for 56 days after exposure for changes in semen characteristics and for the presence of virus in the semen. Clinically, 2 of 4 boars had mild respiratory signs of 1 day's duration after infection. Changes in appetite, behavior, or libido were not detected. All boars seroconverted on the indirect fluorescent antibody and serum virus neutralization tests by day 14 after inoculation. Virus was isolated from serum between days 7 and 14 after inoculation. During the monitoring period, semen volume decreased and pH correspondingly increased; however, this change began 7 to 10 days prior to infection. Differences in sperm morphologic features, concentration, or motility between the preinfection and postinfection samples were not observed. The PRRS virus was detected in semen at the first collection in each of the 4 boars (ie, 3 or 5 days after challenge exposure). Virus was detected in nearly all semen samples collected from the 4 infected boars through days 13, 25, 27, and 43, respectively. Neither gross nor microscopic lesions attributable to PRRS virus were observed in tissues collected at the termination of the experiment (day 56), and virus isolation results from reproductive tissues were negative.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association