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  • Author or Editor: Thomas J. Van Winkle x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of nonneoplastic middle ear disease among cats undergoing necropsy and the prevalence of clinical abnormalities in cats in which nonneoplastic middle ear disease was identified.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—59 cats that underwent necropsy between January 1991 and August 2007.

Procedures—Medical records were searched to identify cats in which nonneoplastic middle ear disease was identified at necropsy. For cats included in the study, data that were recorded included signalment, initial complaint, whether the cat had any clinical signs of middle or external ear disease, whether the cat had upper respiratory tract disease, necropsy diagnosis, gross appearance of the bullae, and reason for euthanasia. Signs of middle ear disease that were considered included unilateral peripheral vestibular disease without motor deficits, Horner syndrome, and facial nerve paralysis.

Results—Of the 3,442 cats that underwent necropsy during the study period, 59 (1.7%) had nonneoplastic middle ear disease. Six of the 59 (10%) cats, including 1 cat that was affected bilaterally, had clinical signs of middle ear disease. Of these, 5 had signs of unilateral peripheral vestibular disease, and 1 had Horner syndrome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that most cats with nonneoplastic middle ear disease did not have associated clinical signs. Findings may be of clinical relevance for cats in which middle ear disease is identified as an incidental finding during computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for unrelated diseases.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of lymphosarcoma and other tumors affecting the spinal cord of cats and to relate specific types of tumors with signalment, history, and clinical findings.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—85 cats with tumors affecting the spinal cord.

Procedures—Medical records of cats with histologically confirmed primary or metastatic tumors of the spinal cord or tumors causing spinal cord disease by local extension from adjacent tissues examined between 1980 and 2005 were reviewed. Data on signalment; clinical history; results of neurologic examination, diagnostic imaging, and clinical pathologic evaluation; and location of tumor within the spinal cord were obtained from medical records and analyzed by use of logistic regression models.

Results—Lymphosarcoma was the most common tumor and affected the spinal cord in 33 (38.8%) cats, followed by osteosarcoma in 14 (16.5%) cats. Cats with lymphosarcoma were typically younger at initial examination, had a shorter duration of clinical signs, and had lesions in more regions of the CNS than did cats with other types of tumors. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cats with lymphosarcoma, the tumor was also found in extraneural sites.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data for spinal cord tumors in this population of cats were analyzed by logistic regression analysis, which effectively distinguished cats with lymphosarcoma from cats with other types of tumors. Additional clinical information reported here will help to increase the index of suspicion or definitive antemortem diagnosis of spinal cord tumors of cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To document the clinical, clinicopathologic, and pathologic findings in cats with severe sepsis, identify abnormalities unique to this species, and identify criteria that could be used antemortem to diagnose the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—29 cats confirmed to have severe sepsis at necropsy.

Procedure—Pertinent history, physical examination findings, and results of hematologic and biochemical testing were extracted from medical records.

Results—Clinical diagnoses included pyothorax, septic peritonitis, bacteremia secondary to gastrointestinal tract disease, pneumonia, endocarditis, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, pyometra, and bite wounds. Physical examination findings included lethargy, pale mucous membranes, poor pulse quality, tachypnea, hypo- or hyperthermia, signs of diffuse pain on abdominal palpation, bradycardia, and icterus. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included anemia, thrombocytopenia, band neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, low serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and hyperbilirubinemia. Necropsy findings included multiorgan necrosis or inflammation with intralesional bacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that severe sepsis in cats is characterized by lethargy, pale mucous membranes, signs of diffuse abdominal pain, tachypnea, bradycardia, weak pulses, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypothermia, and icterus. Recognition of this combination of clinical findings should facilitate the diagnosis of severe sepsis in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:531–535)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize concurrent disorders in dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—221 dogs with DM.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and clinical signs, physical examination findings, and results of clinicopathologic testing, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, coagulation testing, endocrine testing, histologic evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy were recorded.

Results—For most dogs, CBC results were normal. Common serum biochemical abnormalities included hypochloremia (127 dogs, 60%) and high alanine aminotransferase (163, 78%), aspartate aminotransferase (78, 71%), and alkaline phosphatase (188, 90%) activities. Venous pH and serum ionized calcium concentration were measured in 121 and 87 dogs, respectively, and were low in 56 (46%) and 41 (47%) dogs. Lipemia was observed in 92 (42%) dogs. Urine samples from 159 (72%) dogs were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture, and 34 (21%) yielded bacterial growth. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism. Thirty-six (16%) dogs had dermatitis or otitis. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in 51 (23%) dogs on the basis of clinical signs and results of a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (41 dogs), an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test (5), both tests (4), or histologic evaluation of necropsy specimens (1). Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 28 (13%) dogs. Eleven (5%) dogs had tumors for which a histologic diagnosis was obtained. Eight (4%) dogs were hypothyroid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs with diabetes mellitus may have many concurrent disorders. The most commonly identified concurrent disorders included hyperadrenocorticism, urinary tract infection, dermatitis, otitis, acute pancreatitis, neoplasia, and hypothyroidism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1166–1173)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologically confirmed acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) or chronic nonsuppurative pancreatitis (CP) and identify features that may be useful in the antemortem differentiation of these disorders.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—63 cats with histologically confirmed ANP (n = 30) or CP (33).

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, clinicopathologic findings, and results of radiography and ultrasonography.

Results—Cats in both groups had similar nonspecific clinical signs, physical examination findings, and radiographic and ultrasonographic abnormalities. Abdominal ultrasonographic abnormalities, including hypoechoic pancreas, hyperechoic mesentery, and abdominal effusion, were found in cats in both groups and, therefore, were not specific for ANP. Cats with CP were significantly more likely to have concurrent diseases than were cats with ANP (100 and 83%, respectively). Clinicopathologic abnormalities were similar between groups; however, serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in cats with CP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ANP and CP in cats cannot be distinguished from each other solely on the basis of history, physical examination findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, radiographic abnormalities, or ultrasonographic abnormalities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:469–474)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To document clinicopathologic, histologic, and toxicologic findings in cats inadvertently exposed to pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid.

Design—Case series.

Animals—70 cats from a single cattery inadvertently fed contaminated food that was the subject of a March 2007 recall.

Procedures—Clinical signs, clinicopathologic and histopathologic findings, and results of toxicologic analyses were recorded

Results—Clinical signs were identified in 43 cats and included inappetence, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, and lethargy. Azotemia was documented in 38 of the 68 cats for which serum biochemical analyses were performed 7 to 11 days after consumption of the contaminated food. One cat died, and 13 were euthanized. Histologic examination of kidney specimens from 13 cats revealed intratubular crystalluria, tubular necrosis with regeneration, and subcapsular perivascular inflammation characterized by perivascular fibroplasia or fibrosis and inflammation with intravascular fibrin thrombi. Toxicologic analyses revealed melamine and cyanuric acid in samples of cat food, vomitus, urine, and kidneys.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats unintentionally fed pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid, the most consistent clinical and pathologic abnormalities were associated with the urinary tract, specifically tubular necrosis and crystalluria.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association