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  • Author or Editor: Thomas J. Rosol x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate calcium balance and parathyroid gland function in healthy horses and horses with enterocolitis and compare results of an immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA) with those of an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for determination of serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in horses.

Animals—64 horses with enterocolitis and 62 healthy horses.

Procedures—Blood and urine samples were collected for determination of serum total calcium, ionized calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), phosphorus, BUN, total protein, creatinine, albumin, and PTH concentrations, venous blood gases, and fractional urinary clearance of calcium (FCa) and phosphorus (FP). Serum concentrations of PTH were measured in 40 horses by use of both the IRMA and ICMA.

Results—Most (48/64; 75%) horses with enterocolitis had decreased serum total calcium, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations and increased phosphorus concentrations, compared with healthy horses. Serum PTH concentration was increased in most (36/51; 70.6%) horses with hypocalcemia. In addition, FCa was significantly decreased and FP significantly increased in horses with enterocolitis, compared with healthy horses. Results of ICMA were in agreement with results of IRMA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enterocolitis in horses is often associated with hypocalcemia; 79.7% of affected horses had ionized hypocalcemia. Because FCa was low, it is unlikely that renal calcium loss was the cause of hypocalcemia. Serum PTH concentrations varied in horses with enterocolitis and concomitant hypocalcemia. However, we believe low PTH concentration in some hypocalcemic horses may be the result of impaired parathyroid gland function. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:938–947)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To clone and sequence the cDNA for feline preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) and to compare that sequence with other known parathyroid hormone (PTH) sequences.

Sample Population—Parathyroid glands from 1 healthy cat.

Procedure—A cDNA library was constructed in λ phage from feline parathyroid gland mRNA and screened with a radiolabeled canine PTH probe. Positive clones were sequenced, and nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed and compared with known preproPTH and PTH sequences.

Result—Screening of approximately 2 X 105 recombinant plaques revealed 3 that hybridized with the canine PTH probe; 2 clones comprised the complete sequence for feline preproPTH. Feline preproPTH cDNA consisted of a 63-base pair (bp) 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 348-bp coding region, and a 326-bp 3'-UTR. The coding region encoded a 115-amino acid peptide. Mature feline PTH consisted of 84 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that feline PTH was > 83% identical to canine, bovine, swine, equine, human, and macaque PTH and 69, 71, and 44% identical to mouse, rat, and chicken PTH, respectively. Within the region responsible for hormonal activity (amino acids 1 to 34), feline PTH was > 79% identical to other mammalian PTH sequences and 64% identical to the chicken sequence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The amino acid sequence of PTH is conserved among mammalian species. Knowledge of the cDNA sequence for feline PTH may be useful to investigate disturbances of calcium metabolism and alterations in PTH expression in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:194–197)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine effects of experimentally induced hypercalcemia on serum concentrations and urinary excretion of electrolytes, especially ionized magnesium (iMg), in healthy horses.

Animals—21 clinically normal mares.

Procedures—Horses were assigned to 5 experimental protocols (1, hypercalcemia induced with calcium gluconate; 2, hypercalcemia induced with calcium chloride; 3, infusion with dextrose solution; 4, infusion with sodium gluconate; and 5, infusion with saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Hypercalcemia was induced for 2 hours. Dextrose, sodium gluconate, and saline solution were infused for 2 hours. Blood samples were collected to measure serum concentrations of electrolytes, creatinine, parathyroid hormone, and insulin. Urine samples were collected to determine the fractional excretion of ionized calcium (iCa), iMg, sodium, phosphate, potassium, and chloride.

Results—Hypercalcemia induced by administration of calcium gluconate or calcium chloride decreased serum iMg, potassium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations; increased phosphate concentration; and had no effect on sodium, chloride, and insulin concentrations. Hypercalcemia increased urinary excretion of iCa, iMg, sodium, phosphate, potassium, and chloride; increased urine output; and decreased urine osmolality and specific gravity. Dextrose administration increased serum insulin; decreased iMg, potassium, and phosphate concentrations; and decreased urinary excretion of iMg. Sodium gluconate increased the excretion of iCa, sodium, and potassium.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypercalcemia resulted in hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia; increased urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphate, and chloride; and induced diuresis. This study has clinical implications because hypercalcemia and excessive administration of calcium have the potential to increase urinary excretion of electrolytes, especially iMg, and induce volume depletion.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research