Animals—217 client-owned dogs with clinical and
radiographic signs of OA.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to be
treated with meloxicam (n = 105; 0.2 mg/kg [0.09
mg/lb], SC, once on day 1, then 0.1 mg/kg [0.045
mg/lb], PO, q 24 h, for 13 days) or a placebo (n = 112).
A general clinical score was assigned by investigators
on days 1 (ie, prior to initiation of treatment), 8, and 15
on the basis of severity of lameness, extent of weight
bearing, and severity of signs during palpation of the
affected joint. Owners and investigators provided
overall evaluations on days 8 and 15.
Results—Dogs treated with meloxicam had significantly
greater improvements in general clinical scores,
compared with baseline scores, on days 8 and 15 than
did dogs treated with placebo. On days 8 and 15, percentages
of dogs treated with meloxicam in which
owners and investigators considered treatment to be
successful were significantly higher than percentages
of control dogs in which treatment was considered to
be successful. No abnormalities in hematologic and
serum biochemical test results were detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that compared with administration of a placebo,
administration of meloxicam for 14 days significantly
improved the clinical condition of dogs with OA without
causing adverse effects. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1056–1060)
Objective—To assess the microcirculatory effects of IV fluid administration in healthy anesthetized dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.
Animals—49 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were sedated, and anesthesia was induced with propofol and diazepam and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs received lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) IV at rates of 0, 10, or 20 mL/kg/h. Videomicroscopy was used to assess and record effects of LRS administration on microcirculation in the buccal mucosa. Measurements of microcirculatory (total vessel density, proportion of perfused vessels, microcirculatory flow index, and perfused vessel density by vessel size [< 20 μm, ≥ 20 μm, and all diameters]) and other physiologic variables (heart rate, Doppler-measured blood pressure, oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry, capillary refill time, and body temperature) were compared among groups at baseline (immediately after anesthetic induction), 30 and 60 minutes afterward, and overall.
Results—Neither the proportion of perfused vessels nor microcirculatory flow index varied among treatment groups at any time point, regardless of vessel size. For vessels < 20 μm in diameter and for all vessels combined, total and perfused vessel density were similar among groups. For vessels ≥ 20 μm in diameter, total vessel density was significantly greater in the 20 mL/kg/h group than in other groups, and perfused vessel density was significantly greater in the 20 mL/kg/h group than in the 0 mL/kg/h group, when all time points were considered. Other physiologic variables were similar among groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Total and perfused vessel density of vessels ≥ 20 μm in diameter (mostly venules) were greatest in dogs that received 20 mL of LRS/kg/h. Further research is required to evaluate clinical importance of these findings.
Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of various
sampling techniques for determining antimicrobial
resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from
feces of feedlot cattle.
Sample Population—Fecal samples obtained from
328 beef steers and 6 feedlot pens in which the cattle
Procedure—Single fecal samples were collected
from the rectum of each steer and from floors of pens
in which the cattle resided. Fecal material from each
single sample was combined into pools containing 5
and 10 samples. Five isolates of Escherichia coli from
each single sample and each pooled sample were
tested for susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials.
Results—Patterns of antimicrobial resistance for
fecal samples obtained from the rectum of cattle did
not differ from fecal samples obtained from pen
floors. Resistance patterns from pooled samples differed
from patterns observed for single fecal samples.
Little pen-to-pen variation in resistance prevalence
was observed. Clustering of resistance phenotypes
within samples was detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Studies of
antimicrobial resistance in feedlot cattle can rely on
fecal samples obtained from pen floors, thus avoiding
the cost and effort of obtaining fecal samples from the
rectum of cattle. Pooled fecal samples yielded resistance
patterns that were consistent with those of single
fecal samples when the prevalence of resistance
to an antimicrobial was > 2%. Pooling may be a practical
alternative when investigating patterns of resistance
that are not rare. Apparent clustering of resistance
phenotypes within samples argues for examining
fewer isolates per fecal sample and more fecal
samples per pen. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1662–1670)
Objective—To assess the impacts of the introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and various FMD control programs in southern Thailand.
Animals—A native population of 562,910 cattle and 33,088 buffalo as well as 89,294 animals legally transported into southern Thailand.
Procedures—A quantitative risk assessment was used to ascertain the probability of FMD introduction, and an intrinsic dynamic model was used to assess impacts. Value for the transmission rate (β) was estimated. Five scenarios created to assess the impacts of nonstructural protein (NSP) testing, mass vaccination, and culling were examined. Impacts were assessed through an examination of the estimated annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of FMD. The ACIs of various scenarios were compared by use of the Tukey Studentized range technique.
Results—β was estimated at 0.115. Approximately 35,000 cases of FMD would be expected from the baseline situation. A 30% reduction of ACI was detected with the introduction of NSP antibody testing. Prophylactic vaccination resulted in an 85% reduction of ACI. Concurrent use of NSP antibody testing and vaccination reduced the ACI by 96%, and the addition of an eradication policy resulted in a slightly greater decrease in the ACI (98%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study used epidemiologic models to investigate FMD control interventions. Results suggested that vaccination has more impact than the use of NSP testing. Use of the NSP test reduced ACI during peak seasons, whereas vaccination diminished the underlying incidence. The best mitigation plan was an integrated and strategic use of multiple control techniques.
Objective—To assess the likelihood of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) into the Malaysia-Thailand-Myanmar (MTM) peninsula through terrestrial movement of livestock.
Animals—89,294 cattle and buffalo legally moved into the MTM peninsula.
Procedures—A quantitative risk assessment was conducted by use of a stochastic simulation. Patterns of livestock movement were ascertained through review of relevant governmental records and regulations and by interviewing farmers, traders, and local officers when the records did not exist. Parameters identified in the process were the probabilities of livestock having FMD and of FMD infection going undetected during import processes. The probability of an animal accepted for import having FMD was also assessed. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects that each parameter had on the model.
Results—The simulation yielded an average consignment prevalence of 10.95%. Typically, each animal in a quarantine facility had a 2.7% chance of having an inapparent form of FMD infection; hence, it was likely an animal would not be identified as infected. Findings revealed that the mean probability of an animal accepted for import having FMD was 2.9%, and the risk was as high as 11%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the model allowed for the evaluation of movement regulations currently imposed in the MTM peninsula. Evidence from the study suggested that current practices in animal movement were far from efficient in preventing introduction of FMD-infected animals into the MTM region, and additional measures will be necessary.
Objective—To determine the efficacy of triamcinolone
acetonide topical solution (TTS) in dogs for use in
reduction of clinical signs of pruritic inflammatory skin
diseases of a known or suspected allergic basis and
to evaluate adverse effects associated with TTS
Animals—103 pruritic adult dogs with known or suspected
allergic skin disease.
Procedure—Dogs were treated for 4 weeks with TTS
or with vehicle solution (control dogs) in a multiplecenter
study. Clinical signs were scored by owners
and by examining veterinarians before and after treatment.
Blood samples obtained before and after treatment
were subjected to routine hematologic and
serum biochemical analyses.
Results—Treatment success, as defined by an
improvement of at least 2 of 6 grades in overall
clinical score, was evident in 35 of 52 (67%) TTStreated
dogs (mean improvement, 1.98) and 12 of
51 (24%) control dogs (mean improvement, 0.29).
For several criteria, TTS was significantly more
effective than vehicle in reducing clinical signs.
Minor alterations in hematologic determinations in
TTS-treated dogs were limited to slightly lower
total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts
after treatment. Minor adverse effects were reported
by owners in 6 of 52 (12%) TTS-treated and 9 of
51 (18%) control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Triamcinolone
used as a spray solution at a concentration approximately
one-sixth the concentration of triamcinolone
topical preparations currently available for veterinary
use is effective for short-term alleviation of allergic
pruritus in dogs. Adverse effects are few and mild
and, thus, do not preclude prolonged treatment with
the solution. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:408–413)