Objective—To compare repeatability and equivalency of measures of femoral trochlea depth and trochlear angle in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) determined by use of radiography, ultrasonography, and digital photography of cadaver limbs.
Sample—24 pelvic limbs from 12 red fox cadavers.
Procedures—Cranioproximal-craniodistal oblique (skyline) and lateromedial radiographic views of the stifle joint and ultrasonographic images at 5 locations along the femoral trochlea were used in the study. Spacing of the 5 locations was determined on the basis of patellar position with the stifle joint at various caudal angles ranging from 96° to maximal extension (approx 170°). Ultrasonographic measurements were compared with those obtained at matched locations on photographs of anatomic preparations. Trochlear depth was assessed with all 3 image formats, and trochlear angle (measured between the trochlear ridges and sulcus) was assessed on radiographs and ultrasonographic images. Patellar thickness was measured on radiographs. Values obtained were compared by means of ANOVA, modified Bland-Altman plots, and repeatability testing.
Results—Depth measurement repeatability was considered good for all modalities. Small but significant differences between mean ultrasonographic trochlear depth and anatomic (photographic) measurements were found at 3 locations; 95% limits of agreement for paired anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements were wide. The ratio of trochlear depth to radiographic patellar thickness was approximately 30% for all modalities. Trochlear angle measurements were more variable than trochlear depth measurements, especially in the distal aspect of the trochlea.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Paired anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements did not appear equivalent in this study, possibly attributable to imprecise probe location, which could limit quantitative use of ultrasonography in assessing proximal trochlear depth in a clinical setting.
Objective—To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind limbs.
Animals—12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers.
Procedures—CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral condyles, 1 plane aligned with the femoral trochlea, and a third orthogonal plane. Randomized and anonymized reconstructions were assessed for TT-TG offset distance with a single-image technique by 1 observer, and inter-reconstruction repeatability and intra- and inter-reconstruction measurement repeatability were assessed via the repeatability coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient.
Results—Multiplanar reconstructions of hind limb images were repeatedly made to within a few degrees of each other. Intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability for TT-TG offset distance measurement was good. Repeatability was most affected by accurate identification of the tibial tuberosity and femoral trochlea landmarks.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained from vulpine hind limb CT images indicated that reconstructions can be made with a high degree of repeatability when based on strictly defined and applied criteria. The TT-TG offset distance has potential as an objective assessment of alignment of the distal portion of the quadriceps mechanism; its use as an aid in case selection for corrective femoral osteotomy among dogs with medial patellar luxation warrants investigation.
Objective—To characterize acute inflammatory and hemostatic surgical stress responses following castration in cats and to evaluate whether the addition of local anesthesia to the anesthetic protocol attenuates these responses.
Animals—39 male cats.
Procedures—Cats undergoing castration were randomly assigned to 2 groups: both groups underwent surgery with general anesthesia, and 1 group additionally received a local anesthetic (lidocaine [2.0 mg/kg in total, divided intratesticularly and SC]) prior to incision. Blood samples were collected after anesthetic induction (baseline) and 1, 5, and 24 hours later. Thromboelastography and coagulation variables (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] and prothrombin time [PT]) were analyzed; fibrinolysis was assessed with plasma D-dimer concentrations. The acute-phase response was evaluated via measurement of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (last time point, 28 hours) concentrations. Hematologic variables were analyzed at baseline and 1, 5, and 24 hours later.
Results—Evidence of hemostatic and inflammatory activation after surgery was detected in both groups. Maximum amplitude and G (global clot strength) were significantly increased at 24 hours, and significant, but not clinically relevant, decreases were detected in aPTT at 5 and 24 hours and in PT at 24 hours, compared with baseline values. Serum amyloid A concentrations were significantly higher at 24 and 28 hours than at baseline, and plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly increased at 24 hours; WBC and RBC counts and Hct were significantly increased at multiple time points. No differences between groups were detected for any variables.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Castration appeared to induce hypercoagulability and an acute-phase inflammatory response in cats. Local anesthesia with lidocaine did not attenuate this response.
Objective—To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.
Sample—Pelvic limbs from cadavers of 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).
Procedures—Patellar position in each limb at 7 stifle joint angles (30° to 148°) was assessed by use of the Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (mIS), de Carvalho (dC), patellotrochlear (PT), and Blackburne-Peel (BP) indices.
Results—Values for all indices varied significantly on the basis of joint angle, but for IS and mIS indices, this was minor and nonsignificant between 52° and 130° and between 52° and 148°, respectively. The dC index increased linearly, and PT and BP indices varied polynomially with increases in stifle joint angle. Stifle joint angles measured from radiographs agreed well with the goniometrically set stifle joint angles up to approximately 100° and diverged thereafter. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was substantial for all indices, and IS index was the most precise.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IS and mIS index values were effectively independent of stifle joint angle, in contrast to dC, PT, and BP indices. The BP index varied nonsignificantly across a range of joint angles. To maximize angular accuracy, radiographs should not be obtained at joint angles > 100°. Although dC, PT, and BP indices appeared to be suitable for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of patellar position, BP index appeared to have the most promise for determination of patellar position in clinical applications.