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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bulk-tank standard plate counts or plate loop counts and bulk-tank somatic cell counts (SCC) were associated with detection of violative antimicrobial residues in milk from dairy cattle.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Procedure—Information for 1994 through 1997 was obtained from a large milk marketing cooperative that operated in multiple states throughout the northeastern and midwestern United States (16,831 herd-years of information from 6,546 farms) and from the Ohio Department of Agriculture Grade-A Milk Certification Program (12,042 herd-years of information from 4,022 farms). Data were analyzed by use of multivariate logistic regression.

Results—For both data sets, odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be detected increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased. Standard plate counts and plate loop counts were not associated with odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that the odds that a violative antibiotic residue would be found in bulk-tank milk increased as mean SCC for the herd-year increased. This suggests that management practices that would be expected to influence SCC may also influence the risk of antibiotic residue violations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:541–545)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To monitor patterns of Salmonella fecal shedding in naturally infected dairy herds, determine the association between fecal shedding and individual animal production measures, and evaluate potential risk factors for shedding of Salmonella organisms among cattle in dairy herds.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Sample Population—5 Ohio dairy herds.

Procedure—For 3 herds, fecal samples were collected from all mature cows and unweaned calves 7 times during an 18-month period. For the remaining 2 herds, fecal samples were collected from 50 lactating cows 6 times during a 12-month period. Individual animal production records for 3 herds were used to examine associations between individual fecal Salmonella shedding status and 305-day matureequivalent milk production, somatic cell count, milk fat content, and milk protein content. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test for associations between fecal shedding status and breed, lactation status, lactation number, and duration of lactation.

Results—None of the adult animals had clinical signs of salmonellosis, but prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding at individual collection times ranged from 0 to 99% for cows and from 0 to 67% for unweaned calves. Mature cows were more likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms than were unweaned calves. Within herds, lactation status and duration of lactation for individual animals were associated with Salmonella shedding status. Salmonella fecal shedding status was not associated with individual cow production measures.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that subclinical fecal Salmonella shedding can persist in dairy herds for up to 18 months with no measurable effects on health or production of individual cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:650–655)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service at a veterinary teaching hospital and evaluate the response of dogs and cats with signs of pain to analgesic treatment.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—317 dogs and 112 cats.

Procedure—A questionnaire was used to categorize the characteristics of pain. The location, cause, and signs of pain were determined by obtaining a thorough history and conducting a physical examination. Pain was categorized by type (superficial somatic, deep somatic, or visceral), mechanism (inflammatory, neuropathic, or both), severity (mild, moderate, or severe), and duration. Evidence for primary or secondary hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to manipulation was determined. The response to single or multiple analgesic drug administration was assessed.

Results—179 (56%) dogs and 60 (54%) cats had signs of pain. In most of these dogs and cats, pain was classified as acute (< 24 hours' duration) and of moderate severity and was associated with primary hypersensitivity. Most dogs had deep somatic pain; most cats had visceral pain. Inflammation was the most common mechanism. One hundred nineteen (66%) dogs and 41 (68%) cats were treated with analgesic drugs. Analgesic treatment was considered effective in 73 (61%) dogs and 31 (76%) cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that moderate to severe acute somatic pain caused by inflammation is common in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service and that a combination of multiple analgesic drugs is more effective than any single analgesic drug in the treatment of pain in these dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:2004–2009)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective–To determine prevalence of pain among dogs and cats examined as outpatients at a veterinary teaching hospital and characteristics of pain in dogs and cats with evidence of pain.

Design–Cross-sectional study.

Animals–1,153 dogs and 652 cats examined as outpatients at The Ohio State University during 2002.

Procedure–A questionnaire was administered to owners of all dogs and cats. For dogs and cats with evidence of pain, the cause, signs, anatomic location, type (superficial somatic, deep somatic, or visceral), duration, and severity of the pain and the principle mechanism (inflammatory, neuropathic, both, or unknown) responsible for the pain were determined on the basis of questionnaire responses and results of physical examination. The presence of primary hyperalgesia, secondary hyperalgesia, allodynia, and hyposensitivity was recorded.

Results–231 (20%) dogs and 92 (14%) cats had evidence of pain. Dogs with evidence of pain were significantly older and heavier than dogs without. Cats with evidence of pain were significantly older than cats without. In most dogs and cats with evidence of pain, the pain was determined to be of short duration (< 7 days), of mild or moderate severity, somatic, associated with primary hyperalgesia, and inflammatory. Analgesic drugs were frequently administered to dogs with chronic pain, but were not always considered effective.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Results suggest that mild or moderate pain associated with inflammation may be seen in dogs and cats examined as outpatients. Older, heavier dogs and older cats were more likely to have evidence of pain. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1459–1463)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of Salmonella spp in Ohio dairy farms and to identify potential risk factors for fecal shedding of salmonellae.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—105 Ohio dairy farms.

Procedure—Individual fecal samples from all mature cows in study herds were tested for Salmonella spp by use of standard bacteriologic culture procedures. Herds were identified as infected if at least 1 cow was shedding Salmonella spp. Information regarding herd characteristics, management practices, and health history were collected. Potential risk factors for herd-level Salmonella infection were identified.

Results—In 31% of the study herds (95% confidence interval, 22 to 40%), at least 1 cow was shedding Salmonella spp. Six percent of 7,776 fecal samples contained Salmonella organisms; prevalence within infected herds ranged from < 1 to 97%. Herd size, use of free stalls for lactating and nonlactating cows, and use of straw bedding in nonlactating cows were significantly associated with fecal shedding of Salmonella spp, as determined by use of univariate analysis . By use of multivariate analysis, large herds were more likely to be infected than smaller herds; however, no other factors were associated with Salmonella infection after adjustment for herd size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subclinical shedding of Salmonella spp is common in Ohio dairy herds, although we could not identify specific interventions that may influence the prevalence of Salmonella spp on dairy farms. It appears that large herd size and intensive management may provide an environment conducive to Salmonella shedding and chronic dairy herd infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:645–649)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in the fecal flora of conventionally raised feedlot steers and feedlot steers raised without antimicrobials.

Sample Population—61 fecal samples from conventionally raised steers and 61 fecal samples from steers raised without antimicrobials at a single feedlot.

Procedures—Total DNA was extracted from each fecal sample and analyzed by means of 4 multiplex PCR assays for 14 tetracycline resistance genes.

Results—At least 3 tetracycline resistance genes were identified in all 122 fecal samples. For 5 of the 14 tetracycline resistance genes, the percentage of samples in which the gene was detected was significantly higher for fecal samples from conventionally raised cattle than for fecal samples from antimicrobial-free cattle, and for 1 gene, the percent-age of samples in which the gene was detected was significantly higher for fecal samples from antimicrobial-free cattle than for fecal samples from conventionally raised cattle. The percentage of samples with r 11 tetracycline resistance genes was significantly higher for fecal samples from conventionally raised cattle (35/61 [57%]) than for fecal samples from antimicrobial-free cattle (16/61 [26%]).

Conclusions and Relevance—Results suggested that the prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes was significantly higher in the fecal flora of conventionally raised feedlot steers than in the fecal flora of feedlot steers raised without antimicrobials and that a metagenomic approach may be useful in understanding the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in food animals.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence, fecal shedding pattern, and association of bovine torovirus (BoTV) with diarrhea in veal calves at time of arrival and periodically throughout the first 35 days after their arrival on a veal farm.

Animals—62 veal calves.

Procedure—Fecal samples collected on days 0, 4, 14, and 35 after arrival were tested for BoTV by use of ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Paired serum samples obtained from blood collected on days 0 and 35 were analyzed for BoTV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Fecal samples were also screened for other enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium spp.

Results—Fecal shedding of BoTV was detected in 15 of 62 (24%) calves by use of ELISA and RT-PCR assay, with peak shedding on day 4. A significant independent association between BoTV shedding and diarrhea was observed. In addition, calves shedding ≥ 2 enteric pathogens were more likely to have diarrhea than calves shedding ≤ 1 pathogen. Calves that were seronegative or had low antibody titers against BoTV (≤ 1:10 hemagglutination inhibition units) at arrival seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer); these calves were more likely to shed virus than calves that were seropositive against BoTV at arrival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of BoTV was strongly associated with diarrhea in neonatal veal calves during the first week after arrival at the farm. These data provide evidence that BoTV is an important pathogen of neonatal veal calves. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:485–490)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate various sampling strategies for potential use in measuring prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibility in cattle.

Sample Population—500 isolates of non–type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolated from the feces of 50 cows from 2 dairy farms (25 cows/farm and 10 isolates/cow).

Procedures—Diameters of inhibition zones for 12 antimicrobials were analyzed to estimate variation among isolates, cows, and farms and then used to determine sampling distributions for a stochastic simulation model to evaluate 4 sampling strategies. These theoretic sampling strategies used a total of 100 isolates in 4 allocations (1 isolate from 100 cows, 2 isolates from 50 cows, 3 isolates from 33 cows, or 4 isolates from 25 cows).

Results—Analysis of variance composition revealed that 74.2% of variation was attributable to isolates, 18.5% to cows, and 7.3% to farms. Analysis of results of simulations suggested that when most of the variance was attributable to differences among isolates within a cow, culturing 1 isolate from each of 100 cows underestimated overall prevalence, compared with results for culturing more isolates per cow from fewer cows. When variance was not primarily attributable to differences among isolates, all 4 sampling strategies yielded similar results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It is not always possible to predict the hierarchical level at which clustering will have its greatest impact on observed susceptibility distributions. Results suggested that sampling strategies that use testing of 3 or 4 isolates/cow from a representative sample of all animals better characterize herd prevalence of antimicrobial resistance when impacted by clustering.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of various sampling techniques for determining antimicrobial resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from feces of feedlot cattle.

Sample Population—Fecal samples obtained from 328 beef steers and 6 feedlot pens in which the cattle resided.

Procedure—Single fecal samples were collected from the rectum of each steer and from floors of pens in which the cattle resided. Fecal material from each single sample was combined into pools containing 5 and 10 samples. Five isolates of Escherichia coli from each single sample and each pooled sample were tested for susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials.

Results—Patterns of antimicrobial resistance for fecal samples obtained from the rectum of cattle did not differ from fecal samples obtained from pen floors. Resistance patterns from pooled samples differed from patterns observed for single fecal samples. Little pen-to-pen variation in resistance prevalence was observed. Clustering of resistance phenotypes within samples was detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Studies of antimicrobial resistance in feedlot cattle can rely on fecal samples obtained from pen floors, thus avoiding the cost and effort of obtaining fecal samples from the rectum of cattle. Pooled fecal samples yielded resistance patterns that were consistent with those of single fecal samples when the prevalence of resistance to an antimicrobial was > 2%. Pooling may be a practical alternative when investigating patterns of resistance that are not rare. Apparent clustering of resistance phenotypes within samples argues for examining fewer isolates per fecal sample and more fecal samples per pen. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1662–1670)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the relationship between therapeutic use of ceftiofur and recovery of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone from feces of dairy cattle.

Animals—3,840 mature dairy cows on 50 dairy herds in Ohio.

Procedures—Fecal samples were obtained from up to 100 mature dairy cows on each farm. Samples were screened for E coli and Salmonella spp with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone by use of selective media.

ResultsE coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone was recovered from 92% (46/50) of the herds and 60.9% (2,338/3,840) of cows. Salmonella spp were recovered from 44% (22/50) of the herds and 9.9% (382/3,840) of cows. No association was found between ceftiofur use and recovery of E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone at the herd level. However, recovery of E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone was more likely from cows in herds in which Salmonella spp were also recovered on the day of collection (odds ratio, 24.96; 95% confidence interval, 3.17 to 196.68) than from herds in which Salmonella spp were not recovered. Odds of recovery of E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone from an individual cow increased 62% (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 2.25) for every 454-kg increase in herd milk production.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No evidence was found that the use of ceftiofur on dairy farms increases the prevalence or dissemination of Salmonella spp or E coli with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research