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  • Author or Editor: Thomas E. Eurell x
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Topically administered tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was evaluated for its penetration into aqueous humor of clinically normal dogs. Two concentrations of tPA (5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml) were evaluated in a single-dose study, and a concentration of 5 mg of tPA/ml was used for a multiple-dose study. The contralateral eye served as a nontreated control. Enzyme substrate analysis of aqueous humor was used to determine tPA activity. The activity of tPA in aqueous humor was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater in treated eyes of all dogs, compared with that in control eyes. Significant differences in activity of tPA were not detected at different doses in treated eyes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To study the effect of flunixin meglumine on short circuit current (Isc) in equine right ventral colon in vitro.


Intestinal mucosa from healthy horses and ponies.


Isc was measured in mucosa from the right ventral colon mounted in Ussing chambers. In experiment 1, collection and incubation solutions were: control (no additions): flunixin meglumine, 4 μg/ml; indomethacin, 10-6 M; and flunixin meglumine (4 μg/ml) with 10-6 M prostaglandin E2. In experiment 2, incubation conditions were: control (plain Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate [KRB] solution); flunixin meglumine, 4 μg/ml in KRB; chloride-free buffer solution; flunixin meglumine (4 μg/ml) in a chloride-free buffer solution; and plain KRB with 10-6 M prostaglandin E2. In experiment 3, tissue from 3 groups (n = 6 each) of animals: controls, physiologic saline solution given IV at 10 minutes before euthanasia; flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IV) given at 10 minutes before euthanasia; and treatment similar to controls, except that tissues were incubated with 8 μg of flunixin meglumine/ml of bathing medium.


Flunixin meglumine and indomethacin reduced Isc to approximately a third of control current (P < 0.05), but coincubation with flunixin meglumine and 10-6 M prostaglandin E2 restored Isc close to the control value. Incubation with 10-6 M prostaglandin E2 alone did not change Isc. When chloride was substituted with isethionate, flunixin meglumine had no effect on Isc. Flunixin meglumine given before euthanasia or included at a concentration of 8 μg/ml in all tissue preparation and incubation solutions reduced Isc (P < 0.05).


Flunixin meglumine given IV or added to bathing solutions decreased Isc in equine right ventral colon by a mechanism that appeared to involve prostaglandin-mediated chloride secretion.

Clinical Relevance

Our results suggest that flunixin meglumine given IV to horses at recommended doses could alter putative effects of colonic prostaglandins. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:915–919)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Serum haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations were measured in swine that were naturally or experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In swine from a specific-pathogen-free herd, mean serum concentration of Hp (± SD) was 5.79 ± 1.06 mg of cyanmethemoglobin-binding capacity (CHBC/dl. Serum Hp concentrations in paired samples were measured at 7-day intervals in 40 swine randomly selected from a conventional herd that was experiencing an acute episode of pneumonia and deaths caused by A pleuropneumoniae serotype-5 infection. Day-0 and -7 serum Hp concentrations were 24.58 ± 1.38 and 23.10 ± 1.12 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, with no significant difference between these measurements. In a second conventional herd with a history of chronic infection with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 5, serum concentrations of Hp measured in paired samples obtained 6 days apart were 12.36 ± 0.81 and 18.63 ± 0.76 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, and were significantly (P < 0.05) different from each other. Twenty-nine 12-week-old conventional swine were challenged intranasally with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (n = 19) and serotype 5 (n = 10). Serum Hp concentration increased from prechallenge concentrations of 7.49 ± 1.38 and 15.10 ± 1.22 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, to 41.01 ± 1.35 and 22.37 ± 1.78 mg of CHBC/dl, respectively, 72 hours after challenge. For these 29 swine, serum Hp concentration was positively correlated with rectal temperature (r = 0.34; P < 0.001) during the immediate postchallenge period.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association