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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine anesthetic effects of ketamine and medetomidine in bonitos and mackerels and whether anesthesia could be reversed with atipamezole.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—43 bonitos (Sarda chiliensis) and 47 Pacific mackerels (Scomber japonica).

Procedure—28 bonitos were given doses of ketamine ranging from 1 to 8 mg/kg (0.5 to 3.6 mg/lb), IM, and doses of medetomidine ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/kg (0.1 to 0.7 mg/lb), IM (ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 2.5:1 to 20:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 1 or 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used. The remaining 15 bonitos were used to determine the anesthetic effects of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg (0.2 mg/lb). The mackerels were given ketamine at doses ranging from 11 to 533 mg/kg (5 to 242 mg/lb) and medetomidine at doses ranging from 0.3 to 9.1 mg/kg (0.1 to 4.1 mg/lb; ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 3:1 to 800:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used.

Results—IM administration of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg in bonitos and ketamine at a dose of 53 to 228 mg/kg (24 to 104 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.6 to 4.2 mg/kg (0.3 to 1.9 mg/lb) in mackerels was safe and effective. For both species, administration of atipamezole at a dose 5 times the dose of medetomidine reversed the anesthetic effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a combination of ketamine and medetomidine can safely be used for anesthesia of bonitos and mackerels and that anesthetic effects can be reversed with atipamezole. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:417–421)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eighty-eight cattle were injected sc with 2.5 × 108 viable cells of Brucella abortus strain 19. All but 1 heifer became seropositive on the basis of the results of 7 brucellosis tests, and the proportion positive decreased with time. The proportion of cattle that were seropositive during a 20- to 67-week period after vaccination was as follows, in decreasing order: hemolysis-in-gel, 59%; buffered-acid plate antigen, 39%; elisa, 16%; card, 10%; rivanol, 8%; cold complement-fixation, 7%; and automated complement-fixation, 5%. Using the serologic classification in Uniform Methods and Rules for brucellosis eradication, 7 cattle tested brucellosis-positive (2 suspects and 5 reactors). None of the 27 nonpregnant heifers tested positive. Of 18 heifers that were 84 to 135 days in gestation when vaccinated, 6 (33%) tested positive for brucellosis, compared with 0 of 13 and 1 (3%) of 30 heifers that were 11 to 78 and 145 to 253 days in gestation at vaccination, respectively (χ2 = 12.07; 2 df; P < 0.01). Neither breed (Angus, Hereford, Jersey, and Brahman) nor calf survival was related to brucellosis-positive results. Postpartum milk samples from 61 heifers and 24 tissues from 2 reactor cattle were culture-negative for B abortus.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Seventy-nine cattle in all stages of gestation were inoculated with a low dose (2.5 × 108 colony-forming units) of Brucella abortus strain 19, then challenge exposed with pathogenic B abortus strain 2308 during the subsequent gestation. A brucellosis case was defined by isolation of strain 2308 from dam or calf samples. Cumulative incidence of brucellosis cases was 48, 33, 25, or 47% for cattle that were, respectively, not pregnant, or 19 to 87, 100 to 167, or 190 to 253 days in gestation at vaccination. The cumulative incidence was 56% in 27 nonvaccinated controls. The 95% confidence intervals for risk ratios included 1 in all cattle, except those that were 100 to 167 days in gestation at vaccination (ie, second trimester); the confidence interval for this group was 0.21 to 0.97. The prevented fraction (1-risk ratio) attributed to strain 19, in ascending order, was 0.14, 0.16, 0.4, or 0.55, respectively, for cattle that were not pregnant, or were 190 to 253, 19 to 87, or 100 to 167 days in gestation at vaccination.

Potential confounders of breed, pen effect, and gestation days at challenge exposure did not significantly affect results. Results supported the hypothesis that stage of gestation at vaccination will affect the prevented fraction of brucellosis, or efficacy of strain 19, in cattle vaccinated with a low dose and, therefore, is one factor that may explain variation in strain 19-induced protection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with abortions during early gestation classified as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS).

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—324 broodmares from 43 farms in central Kentucky, including 121 mares from 25 farms that had early-term abortions (ETAs) associated with MRLS (case horses), 120 mares from the same farms but that did not abort, and 83 mares from 18 farms that were not severely impacted by MRLS.

Procedure—Farm managers were interviewed to obtain data on various management practices and environmental exposures for the mares. Data for case and control horses were compared to identify risk factors for mares having MRLS-associated ETAs.

Results—Several factors increased the risk of MRLS-associated ETAs, including feeding hay in pasture, greater than usual amounts of white clover in pastures, more eastern tent caterpillars in pastures, abortion during a previous pregnancy, and sighting deer or elk on the premises.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis indicates that certain characteristics of pastures predisposed mares to MRLS-associated ETAs. Methods for limiting exposure to pasture (keeping mares in stalls longer) during environmental conditions similar to those of 2001 (ie, sudden freezing in mid-April following warmer-than-usual springtime temperatures and larger-than-usual numbers of eastern tent caterpillars in and around pastures) should reduce the risk of mares having MRLS-associated ETAs. It was not possible to determine whether exposure to white clover or caterpillars were causal factors for MRLS or were merely indicators of unusual environmental conditions that resulted in exposure of mares to a toxic or infectious agent. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:210–217)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association