Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Thomas Chen x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine tear volume, turnover rate, and flow rate in ophthalmologically normal horses by use of fluorophotometry.

Animals—12 mares free of ophthalmic disease.

Procedures—2 μL of 10% sodium fluorescein was instilled onto 1 eye of each horse, and tear samples were collected via microcapillary tubes from the inferonasal conjunctival culde-sac at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after instillation. Collected tear samples were then measured for fluorescein concentrations with a computerized scanning ocular fluorophotometer. A decay curve plot of concentration changes over time was used to determine tear flow rate and volume through 2 different mathematical treatments of the data (the including method and the excluding method).

Results—Fluorescein concentration in tears decreased in a first-order manner. The including method yielded a mean tear volume of 360.09 μL, a turnover rate of 12.22%/min, and a flow rate of 47.77 μL/min. The excluding method yielded values of 233.74 μL, 13.21%/min, and 33.62 μL/min, respectively. Mean ± SD correlation coefficients for the natural logarithm of the fluorescein concentration versus time were 0.93 ± 0.12 for the including method and 0.98 ± 0.03 for the excluding method.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The excluding method yielded more accurate results. A tear flow rate of 33.62 μL/min and a tear volume of 233.74 μL imply a complete recycling of the tear volume in approximately 7 minutes and suggest that increased dosing regimens or constant infusion methods for topical administration of ophthalmic drugs may be indicated when treating horses for corneal disease in which high ocular surface concentrations are needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome in cats with blastomycosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—8 cats with naturally occurring blastomycosis.

Procedures—Medical records of the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were searched for cases of blastomycosis in cats diagnosed via cytologic or histopathologic findings. Clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome were determined. Radiographs were reviewed for the 8 cases.

Results—All cats were systemically ill. Respiratory tract signs and dermal lesions were most commonly observed. All cats had radiographic evidence of respiratory tract disease. Seven of the 8 cats had ill-defined soft-tissue opacities (nodules or masses) or alveolar consolidation of the lungs. Antemortem diagnosis was achieved cytologically in 6 of the 8 cats, and 3 were successfully treated and survived.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In contrast to previous reports, diagnosis was achieved antemortem in most of the cats (all by cytologic identification of the organism). Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and outcome were similar to previous descriptions of this rare disease in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe qualitative blinking patterns and determine quantitative kinematic variables of eyelid motion in ophthalmologically normal horses.

ANIMALS 10 adult mares.

PROCEDURES High-resolution videography was used to film blinking behavior. Videotapes were analyzed for mean blink rate, number of complete versus incomplete blinks, number of unilateral versus bilateral blinks, and subjective descriptions of blinking patterns. One complete blink for each horse was analyzed with image-analysis software to determine the area of corneal coverage as a function of time during the blink and to calculate eyelid velocity and acceleration during the blink.

RESULTS Mean ± SD blink rate was 18.9 ± 5.5 blinks/min. Blinks were categorized as minimal incomplete (29.7 ± 15.6%), moderate incomplete (33.5 ± 5.9%), complete (30.8 ± 13.1%), and complete squeeze (6.0 ± 2.8%); 22.6 ± 9.0% of the blinks were unilateral, and 77.3 ± 9.1% were bilateral. Mean area of exposed cornea at blink initiation was 5.89 ± 1.02 cm2. Mean blink duration was 0.478 seconds. Eyelid closure was approximately twice as rapid as eyelid opening (0.162 and 0.316 seconds, respectively). Deduced maximum velocity of eyelid closure and opening was −16.5 and 7.40 cm/s, respectively. Deduced maximum acceleration of eyelid closure and opening was −406.0 and −49.7 cm/s2, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Kinematic variables of ophthalmologically normal horses were similar to values reported for humans. Horses had a greater percentage of complete squeeze blinks, which could increase tear film stability. Blinking kinematics can be assessed as potential causes of idiopathic keratopathies in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To develop an ELISA that is sensitive and suitable for measurement of immunoreactive acepromazine (ACP) in horse serum and urine and to determine the acute effects of exercise on immunoreactive ACP values in Thoroughbreds.

Animals

12 healthy Thoroughbreds (5 mares, 5 geldings, 2 stallions), aged 2 to 8 years.

Procedure

A commercially available antibody and a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated oxime derivative of immunoreactive ACP were used to develop a one-step ELISA. Horses were used in a crossover design study to evaluate possible effects of treadmill exercise on serum and urine ACP concentrations after a single (25 mg) IM injection of the drug.

Results

Immunoreactive ACP was detectable at concentrations as low as 50 pg/ml in serum and 100 pg/ml in urine, with intra- and interassay variabilities of 1.1 and 5.2%, respectively. The antibody had some cross-reactivity with a limited number of other phenothiazines. After drug administration, serum ACP immunoreactivity achieved a peak concentration (10.5 ng/ml) within 30 minutes and could be measured up to 48 hours in serum and 120 hours in urine. Although exercise had no significant effect on serum drug concentration, immunoreactive ACP disappeared more quickly (by 48 hours) from the urine of horses in the exercised group.

Conclusions

This one-step ELISA provides a simple and sensitive means to measure immunoreactive ACP in equine serum and urine. The ability to detect drug several days after administration of a low dose of ACP should augment efforts to control illicit use of this drug in performance horses. Potential changes in ACP kinetics after exercise warrant further study. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:593–597)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of dilution and alkalinization, separately and together, on the stability of uric acid in canine urine stored at −20 C.

Design

Prospective-controlled study.

Animals

5 dogs with confirmed ammonium urate uroliths, 6 Beagles, and 6 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were fed a 31.4% protein (dry weight), meat-based diet for 21 days, and urine samples were collected on day 22. Urine samples were preserved, using combinations of dilution and alkalinization, and divided into 1-ml aliquots for storage at −20 C for 1 to 12 weeks. Urine uric acid concentrations were measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography, on day of collection (baseline), and after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

Results

Alkalinization did not have a significant effect on reproducibility of measurements of uric acid concentrations in urine; however, dilution did have a significant effect. Compared with baseline, uric acid concentrations in urine samples collected from dogs with ammonium urate uroliths and Beagles and diluted 1:10 or 1:20 with deionized water were not different after storage for 1 to 12 weeks. Uric acid concentrations in urine samples collected from mixed-breed dogs did not differ from baseline values during the 12-week storage period whether samples were undiluted or were diluted 1:10 or 1:20 with deionized water.

Conclusions

Measurements of uric acid concentration are most reproducible in canine urine samples stored at −20 C for 1 to 12 weeks when samples are diluted 1:20 with deionized water.

Clinical Relevance

To ensure reproducibility of measurements of uric acid concentration in urine samples collected from dogs affected with urate uroliths, urine should be diluted 1:20 with deionized water. Alkalinization is not necessary, and is not recommended because of the additional step in processing and its potential to interfere with measurement of other urinary analytes. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:787–790)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research