Objective—To determine tear volume, turnover rate, and flow rate in ophthalmologically normal horses by use of fluorophotometry.
Animals—12 mares free of ophthalmic disease.
Procedures—2 μL of 10% sodium fluorescein was instilled onto 1 eye of each horse, and tear samples were collected via microcapillary tubes from the inferonasal conjunctival culde-sac at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after instillation. Collected tear samples were then measured for fluorescein concentrations with a computerized scanning ocular fluorophotometer. A decay curve plot of concentration changes over time was used to determine tear flow rate and volume through 2 different mathematical treatments of the data (the including method and the excluding method).
Results—Fluorescein concentration in tears decreased in a first-order manner. The including method yielded a mean tear volume of 360.09 μL, a turnover rate of 12.22%/min, and a flow rate of 47.77 μL/min. The excluding method yielded values of 233.74 μL, 13.21%/min, and 33.62 μL/min, respectively. Mean ± SD correlation coefficients for the natural logarithm of the fluorescein concentration versus time were 0.93 ± 0.12 for the including method and 0.98 ± 0.03 for the excluding method.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The excluding method yielded more accurate results. A tear flow rate of 33.62 μL/min and a tear volume of 233.74 μL imply a complete recycling of the tear volume in approximately 7 minutes and suggest that increased dosing regimens or constant infusion methods for topical administration of ophthalmic drugs may be indicated when treating horses for corneal disease in which high ocular surface concentrations are needed.
Objective—To evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome in cats with blastomycosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—8 cats with naturally occurring blastomycosis.
Procedures—Medical records of the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital were searched for cases of blastomycosis in cats diagnosed via cytologic or histopathologic findings. Clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and clinical outcome were determined. Radiographs were reviewed for the 8 cases.
Results—All cats were systemically ill. Respiratory tract signs and dermal lesions were most commonly observed. All cats had radiographic evidence of respiratory tract disease. Seven of the 8 cats had ill-defined soft-tissue opacities (nodules or masses) or alveolar consolidation of the lungs. Antemortem diagnosis was achieved cytologically in 6 of the 8 cats, and 3 were successfully treated and survived.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In contrast to previous reports, diagnosis was achieved antemortem in most of the cats (all by cytologic identification of the organism). Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and outcome were similar to previous descriptions of this rare disease in cats.
OBJECTIVE To describe qualitative blinking patterns and determine quantitative kinematic variables of eyelid motion in ophthalmologically normal horses.
ANIMALS 10 adult mares.
PROCEDURES High-resolution videography was used to film blinking behavior. Videotapes were analyzed for mean blink rate, number of complete versus incomplete blinks, number of unilateral versus bilateral blinks, and subjective descriptions of blinking patterns. One complete blink for each horse was analyzed with image-analysis software to determine the area of corneal coverage as a function of time during the blink and to calculate eyelid velocity and acceleration during the blink.
RESULTS Mean ± SD blink rate was 18.9 ± 5.5 blinks/min. Blinks were categorized as minimal incomplete (29.7 ± 15.6%), moderate incomplete (33.5 ± 5.9%), complete (30.8 ± 13.1%), and complete squeeze (6.0 ± 2.8%); 22.6 ± 9.0% of the blinks were unilateral, and 77.3 ± 9.1% were bilateral. Mean area of exposed cornea at blink initiation was 5.89 ± 1.02 cm2. Mean blink duration was 0.478 seconds. Eyelid closure was approximately twice as rapid as eyelid opening (0.162 and 0.316 seconds, respectively). Deduced maximum velocity of eyelid closure and opening was −16.5 and 7.40 cm/s, respectively. Deduced maximum acceleration of eyelid closure and opening was −406.0 and −49.7 cm/s2, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Kinematic variables of ophthalmologically normal horses were similar to values reported for humans. Horses had a greater percentage of complete squeeze blinks, which could increase tear film stability. Blinking kinematics can be assessed as potential causes of idiopathic keratopathies in horses.