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Abstract

Objective—To determine seroprevalence of antibodies to Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffiiand risk factors for seropositivity among working dogs owned by the US government.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—1,872 dogs.

Procedure—An ELISA was used to detect antibodies to B vinsonii subsp berkhoffii.

Results—Antibodies to B vinsonii subsp berkhoffii were detected in 162 dogs (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 7.4 to 10.0%). Dogs living in the southeast, plains states, southwest, and south-central were significantly more likely to be seropositive than were dogs living in other regions of the United States. German Shepherd-type dogs were significantly less likely to be seropositive than were dogs of other breeds, and dogs entering training programs or that had been rejected from a training program were significantly more likely to be seropositive than were dogs used for narcotics detection and dogs trained to patrol or detect explosives. Dogs used by the border patrol or Federal Aviation Administration were more likely to be seropositive than were dogs used by the Department of Defense or customs service. Odds that dogs would be seropositive were significantly higher for dogs stationed in the southern United States, the northeastern United States, or a foreign country, compared with dogs stationed in all other regions of the United States.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overall, 8.7% of this diverse group of healthy dogs was found to be seropositive for antibodies to B vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, and seropositivity rates were associated with location, suggesting either that there are multiple vectors for the organism or that the major vector for the organism depends on geographic and environmental factors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:480–484)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare anesthesia-related events associated with IV administration of 2 novel micellar microemulsion preparations (1% and 5%) and a commercially available formulation (1%) of propofol in horses.

Animals—9 healthy horses.

Procedures—On 3 occasions, each horse was anesthetized with 1 of the 3 propofol formulations (1% or 5% microemulsion or 1% commercial preparation). All horses received xylazine (1 mg/kg, IV), and anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg, IV). Induction and recovery events were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at intervals following anesthesia for quantification of clinicopathologic variables.

Results—Compared with the commercial formulation, the quality of anesthesia induction in horses was slightly better with the micellar microemulsion formulas. In contrast, recovery characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable among treatment groups (eg, time to stand after anesthesia was 34.3 ± 7.3 minutes, 34.1 ± 8.8 minutes, and 39.0 ± 7.6 minutes in horses treated with the commercial formulation, 1% microemulsion, and 5% microemulsion, respectively). During recovery from anesthesia, all horses stood on the first attempt and walked within 5 minutes of standing. No clinically relevant changes in hematologic and serum biochemical analytes were detected during a 3-day period following anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the micellar microemulsion preparation of propofol (1% or 5%) has similar anesthetic effects in horses, compared with the commercially available lipid propofol formulation. Additionally, the micellar microemulsion preparation is anticipated to have comparatively low production costs and can be manufactured in various concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of morphine administration for 6 days on gastrointestinal tract function in healthy adult horses.

Animals—5 horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly allocated into 2 groups in a crossover study. Horses in the treatment group received morphine sulfate at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours for 6 days. Horses in the control group received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution at a dosage of 10 mL, IV, every 12 hours for 6 days. Variables assessed included defecation frequency, weight of feces produced, intestinal transit time (evaluated by use of barium-filled spheres and radiographic detection in feces), fecal moisture content, borborygmus score, and signs of CNS excitement and colic.

Results—Administration of morphine resulted in gastrointestinal tract dysfunction for 6 hours after each injection. During those 6 hours, mean ± SD defecation frequency decreased from 3.1 ± 1 bowel movements in control horses to 0.9 ± 0.5 bowel movements in treated horses, weight of feces decreased from 4.1 ± 0.7 kg to 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, fecal moisture content decreased from 76 ± 2.7% to 73.5 ± 2.9%, and borborygmus score decreased from 13.2 ± 2.9 to 6.3 ± 3.9. Mean gastrointestinal transit time was also increased, compared with transit times in control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Morphine administered at 0.5 mg/kg twice daily decreased propulsive motility and moisture content in the gastrointestinal tract lumen. These effects may predispose treated horses to development of ileus and constipation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of meloxicam on values of hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis variables and results of histologic examination of tissue specimens of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

Animals—30 adult Japanese quail.

Procedures—15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination of the left kidneys, and 15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination and biopsy of the left kidneys. Quail in each of these groups received meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h; n = 10) or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL, IM, q 12 h; control birds; 5) for 14 days. A CBC and plasma biochemical analyses were performed at the start of the study and within 3 hours after the last treatment. Birds were euthanized and necropsies were performed.

Results—No adverse effects of treatments were observed, and no significant changes in values of hematologic variables were detected during the study. Plasma uric acid concentrations and creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly different before versus after treatment for some groups of birds. Gross lesions identified during necropsy included lesions at renal biopsy sites and adjacent air sacs (attributed to the biopsy procedure) and pectoral muscle hemorrhage and discoloration (at sites of injection). Substantial histopathologic lesions were limited to pectoral muscle necrosis, and severity was greater for meloxicam-treated versus control birds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h for 14 days) did not cause substantial alterations in function of or histopathologic findings for the kidneys of Japanese quail but did induce muscle necrosis; repeated IM administration of meloxicam to quail may be contraindicated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that isofluraneanesthetized horses during controlled ventilation and spontaneous ventilation exhibit temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics, as measured by intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure, that reflect temporal changes in systemic arterial pressure.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized in left lateral recumbency with 1.57% isoflurane in O2 for 5 hours in 2 experiments by use of either controlled ventilation (with normocapnia) or spontaneous ventilation (with hypercapnia) in a randomized crossover design. Intracranial pressure was measured with a subarachnoid strain-gauge transducer. Carotid artery pressure, central venous pressure, airway pressures, blood gases, and minute ventilation also were measured.

Results—Intracranial pressure during controlled ventilation significantly increased during constant dose isoflurane anesthesia and thus contributed to decreasing cerebral perfusion pressure. Intracranial pressure was initially higher during spontaneous ventilation than during controlled ventilation, but this difference disappeared over time; no significant differences in cerebral perfusion pressures were observed between horses that had spontaneous or controlled ventilation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cerebral hemodynamics and their association with ventilation mode are altered over time in isoflurane-anesthetized horses and could contribute to decreased cerebral perfusion during prolonged anesthesia. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1444–1448)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether high intracranial pressure (ICP) during spontaneous ventilation (SV) in anesthetized horses coincides with an increase in intracranial elastance (ie, change in ICP per unit change of intracranial volume).

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced and maintained in each horse for 5 hours with isoflurane at a constant dose equal to 1.2 times the minimum alveolar concentration. Direct ICP measurements were obtained by use of a strain gauge transducer inserted in the subarachnoid space, and arterial blood pressure was measured from a carotid artery. Physiologic responses were recorded after 15 minutes of normocapnic controlled ventilation (CV) and then after 10 minutes of SV. Aliquots (3 mL) of CSF were removed from each horse during SV until ICP returned to CV values. Slopes of pressure-volume curves yielded intracranial elastance.

Results—Intracranial elastance ranged from 0.2 to 3.7 mm Hg/mL after removal of the first aliquot of CSF. Slopes of pressure-volume curves were largest following removal of the initial CSF aliquot, but shallow portions of curves were detected at relatively high ICPs (25 to 35 mm Hg). A second-order relationship between SV ICP and initial intracranial elastance was found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses anesthetized with isoflurane, small changes in intracranial volume can cause large changes in ICP. Increased intracranial elastance could further exacerbate preexisting intracranial hypertension. However, removal of small volumes of CSF may cause rapid compensatory replacement from other intracranial compartments, which suggests steady-state maintenance of an increase in intracranial volume during isoflurane anesthesia in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1042–1046)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure the effects of isoflurane end-tidal concentration and mode of ventilation (spontaneous vs controlled) on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in horses.

Animals—6 adult horses of various breeds.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in O2 in 6 healthy, unmedicated, adult horses. Using a subarachnoid strain gauge transducer, ICP was measured. Blood gas tensions and carotid artery pressures also were measured. Four isoflurane doses were studied, corresponding to the following multiples of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC): 1.0 MAC, 1.2 MAC, 1.4 MAC, and 1.6 MAC. Data were collected during controlled ventilation and spontaneous ventilation at each dose.

Results—Increasing isoflurane end-tidal concentration induced significant dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and CPP but no change in ICP. Hypercapnic spontaneous ventilation caused significant increases in MAP and ICP, compared with normocapnic controlled ventilation; no change in CPP was observed.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Hypercapnia likely increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) by maintaining CPP in the face of presumed cerebral vasodilation in healthy anesthetized horses. The effect of isoflurane dose on CBF, however, remains unresolved because it depends on the opposinginfluences of a decrease in CCP and cerebral vasodilation. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:21–25)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare associations between vaccine types and other injectable drugs with development of injection-site sarcomas in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—181 cats with soft tissue sarcomas (cases), 96 cats with tumors at non-vaccine regions (control group I), and 159 cats with basal cell tumors (control group II).

Procedures—Subjects were prospectively obtained from a large pathology database. Demographic, sarcoma location, basal cell tumor, and vaccine and other injectable history data were documented by use of a questionnaire and used to define case, control, and exposure status. Three control groups were included: cats with sarcomas at non-vaccine sites, cats with basal cell tumors, and a combined group of cats with sarcomas at non-vaccine sites and cats with basal cell tumors. χ2 tests, marginal homogeneity tests, and exact logistic regression were performed.

Results—In the broad interscapular region, the frequency of administration of long-acting corticosteroid injections (dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone) was significantly higher in cases than in controls. In the broad rear limb region, case cats were significantly less likely to have received recombinant vaccines than inactivated vaccines; ORs from logistic regression analyses equaled 0.1, with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 0 to 0.4 and 0 to 0.7, depending on control group and time period of exposure used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This case-control study measuring temporal and spatial exposures efficiently detected associations between administrations of various types of vaccines (recombinant vs inactivated rabies) and other injectable products (ie, long-acting corticosteroids) with sarcoma development without the need to directly measure incidence. These findings nevertheless also indicated that no vaccines were risk free. The study is informative in allowing practitioners to weigh the relative merits and risks of commonly used pharmaceutical products.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence rates (IRs) and potential risk factors for owner-reported adverse events (AEs) following vaccination of dogs that did or did not receive a Leptospira vaccine.

Design—Observational, retrospective cohort study.

Animals—130,557 dogs.

Procedures—Electronic records of mobile veterinary clinics from June 2012 to March 2013 were searched to identify dogs that received ≥ 1 vaccine in a given visit. Signalment data, vaccinations received, medications administered, and owner-reported clinical signs consistent with AEs that developed ≤ 5 days after vaccination were recorded. Associations between potential risk factors and owner-reported AEs were evaluated by logistic regression analysis.

Results—The IR/10,000 dogs for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was 26.3 (95% CI, 23.6 to 29.2), whereas that for dogs that received a Leptospira vaccine alone or with other vaccines was 53.0 (95% CI, 42.8 to 64.9). Significant factors for increasing or decreasing risk of AEs were as follows: receiving a Leptospira vaccine (adjusted OR, 2.13), age at vaccination 1 to < 7 or ≥ 7 years (vs a referent of < 6 months; adjusted OR, 0.54 and 0.44, respectively), and weight 13.6 to < 22.7 kg (30 to < 50 lb) and 22.7 to < 45.5 kg (50 to 100 lb [vs a referent of < 4.5 kg {10 lb}]; adjusted OR, 0.48 and 0.55, respectively). Hypersensitivity reactions were rare (IR, 6.5/10,000 dogs), and IRs for these events did not differ significantly between dogs vaccinated with or without a Leptospira component.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The overall IR for owner-reported postvaccination AEs was low. Results suggested vaccination against Leptospira (an organism that can cause fatal disease) is safe in the majority of cases, slightly increasing the risk of owner-reported AEs but not associated with a significant increase in hypersensitivity reactions, compared with other vaccinations administered.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics and effects of the morphine antagonist N-methylnaltrexone (MNTX) on gastrointestinal tract function in horses when administered alone and in combination with morphine.

Animals—5 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were treated with MNTX (1 mg/kg, IV), and serial blood samples were collected for determination of drug pharmacokinetics. For evaluation of effects on the gastrointestinal tract when administered alone, MNTX was administered at a dosage of 0.75 mg/kg, IV, twice daily for 4 days. For evaluation of effects when administered concurrently with morphine, MNTX (0.75 mg/kg, IV, q 12 hours) and morphine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 12 hours) were administered for 6 days. Gastrointestinal variables evaluated were defecation frequency, weight of feces produced, fecal moisture content, intestinal transit time, and borborygmus scores.

Results—The time-concentration data for MNTX disposition best fit a 2-compartment model with a steady-state volume of distribution of 244.6 ± 21.8 mL/kg, t1/2 of 47.04 ± 11.65 minutes, and clearance of 11.43 ± 1.06 mL/min/kg. Adverse effects were not observed at doses ≤ 1 mg/kg. Administration of MNTX increased daily fecal weight. When administered concurrently with morphine, MNTX partially prevented the effects of morphine on the gastrointestinal tract by increasing defecation frequency, fecal weight, fecal moisture content, and borborygmus score, and by preventing increases in intestinal transit time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because MNTX does not cross the blood-brain barrier, administration of the drug should not alter the analgesic effects of opioids and may attenuate the adverse gastrointestinal effects associated with use of opioids in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research