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Summary

Eighty-eight cattle were injected sc with 2.5 × 108 viable cells of Brucella abortus strain 19. All but 1 heifer became seropositive on the basis of the results of 7 brucellosis tests, and the proportion positive decreased with time. The proportion of cattle that were seropositive during a 20- to 67-week period after vaccination was as follows, in decreasing order: hemolysis-in-gel, 59%; buffered-acid plate antigen, 39%; elisa, 16%; card, 10%; rivanol, 8%; cold complement-fixation, 7%; and automated complement-fixation, 5%. Using the serologic classification in Uniform Methods and Rules for brucellosis eradication, 7 cattle tested brucellosis-positive (2 suspects and 5 reactors). None of the 27 nonpregnant heifers tested positive. Of 18 heifers that were 84 to 135 days in gestation when vaccinated, 6 (33%) tested positive for brucellosis, compared with 0 of 13 and 1 (3%) of 30 heifers that were 11 to 78 and 145 to 253 days in gestation at vaccination, respectively (χ2 = 12.07; 2 df; P < 0.01). Neither breed (Angus, Hereford, Jersey, and Brahman) nor calf survival was related to brucellosis-positive results. Postpartum milk samples from 61 heifers and 24 tissues from 2 reactor cattle were culture-negative for B abortus.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The reactivity of bovine lymphocytes to 4 species of Brucella was tested in thymidine-uptake assays, using long-term cultured lymphocytes and freshly obtained blood mononuclear cells. Lymphocytes were taken from cows that had been challenge exposed with a virulent strain of B abortus at midgestation. The cows were classified retrospectively as being naturally resistant or susceptible to brucellosis. Lymphocytes taken from these cows had 3 patterns of reactivity with species of Brucella: pattern 1 was defined by reactivity with 4 species (B abortus, B canis, B suis, and B melitensis); pattern 2 was defined by reactivity with all these species, except B melitensis; pattern 3 was defined by reactivity with B abortus and B canis, but not with B suis or B melitensis. There was a statistically significant correlation between susceptibility to brucellosis and expression of lymphocyte cross-reactivity with B suis (P < 0.01) and with B melitensis (P < 0.01).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

This study was designed to test analgesia, duration, and cardiovascular changes induced by meperidine (mep) and oxymorphone (oxy) following methoxyflurane (mof) and halothane (hal) anesthesia. Eight healthy dogs were given atropine and acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with thiamylal and maintained with 1.5 minimal alveolar concentration of mof or hal for 1 hour during controlled ventilation. Eight treatments were given with each anesthetic: 3 with mep (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, iv), 3 with oxymorphone (oxy; 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, iv), and 2 placebos with sterile water. Test drugs were given at the end of anesthesia when early signs of recovery were evident. Minimal threshold stimulus/response nociception was assessed by use of an inflatable soft plastic colonic balloon. Blood pressures and pulse rate were measured with a noninvasive monitor. Meperidine and oxy were found to be effective analgesics and could be reversed with naloxone. Intravenous administration of 2.0 mg of mep/kg provided analgesia for 36 ± 6 minutes and 39 ± 15 minutes after mof and hal, respectively. In contrast, oxy was effective at all 3 doses with effects of iv administration of 0.2 mg of oxy/kg lasting 154 ± 13 minutes and 152 ± 12 minutes, after mof and hal, respectively. Analgesia could not be demonstrated after anesthesia for acepromazine, mof, or hal. Blood pressure was not changed by either anesthetic nor was it influenced by mep or oxy. Pulse rate was significantly depressed by the higher doses of oxy following hal, but was not changed by mep following either anesthetic. This study demonstrated the longer duration of analgesia of oxy. In addition, we could not find that analgesia was provided by either mof or hal following recovery from anesthesia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Seventy-nine cattle in all stages of gestation were inoculated with a low dose (2.5 × 108 colony-forming units) of Brucella abortus strain 19, then challenge exposed with pathogenic B abortus strain 2308 during the subsequent gestation. A brucellosis case was defined by isolation of strain 2308 from dam or calf samples. Cumulative incidence of brucellosis cases was 48, 33, 25, or 47% for cattle that were, respectively, not pregnant, or 19 to 87, 100 to 167, or 190 to 253 days in gestation at vaccination. The cumulative incidence was 56% in 27 nonvaccinated controls. The 95% confidence intervals for risk ratios included 1 in all cattle, except those that were 100 to 167 days in gestation at vaccination (ie, second trimester); the confidence interval for this group was 0.21 to 0.97. The prevented fraction (1-risk ratio) attributed to strain 19, in ascending order, was 0.14, 0.16, 0.4, or 0.55, respectively, for cattle that were not pregnant, or were 190 to 253, 19 to 87, or 100 to 167 days in gestation at vaccination.

Potential confounders of breed, pen effect, and gestation days at challenge exposure did not significantly affect results. Results supported the hypothesis that stage of gestation at vaccination will affect the prevented fraction of brucellosis, or efficacy of strain 19, in cattle vaccinated with a low dose and, therefore, is one factor that may explain variation in strain 19-induced protection.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Butorphanol (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg of body weight, and placebo) was given sc to 8 healthy unmedicated dogs to determine its efficacy for visceral analgesia, using a colonic balloon for minimal threshold nociceptor stimulation. Degree of sedation; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure; and pulse rate were recorded. The highest 3 dosages, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, were found to be most effective, with 0.8 mg/kg the only dosage that was significantly different from control responses at the 45-minute interval. Duration of analgesia ranged from 23 to 53 minutes for all 6 dosages and dosing durations were not significantly different from one another. Blood pressures did not change, but pulse rate was significantly decreased by 0.8 mg of butorphanol/kg. We concluded that butorphanol is an effective visceral analgesic of relatively short duration in the dog.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the seroprevalence for Neospora caninum in a population of beef calves in a feedlot and the association of serologic status with postweaning weight gain and carcass measurements.

Design—Longitudinal observational study.

Animals—1,009 weaned beef steers from 92 herds.

Procedure—Samples were obtained from all steers at time of arrival at a feedlot. Serologic status for Neospora spp was determined, using an agglutination test. Results of serologic testing were compared with calf growth and carcass data, using multivariate regression with generalized estimating equations.

Results—Of 1,009 calves, 131 (12.98%) were seropositive, and 54 of 92 (58.7%) consignments had ≥ 1 seropositive calf. Median within-consignment prevalence for consignments in which there was ≥ 1 seropositive calf was 20%. Seropositive status was associated with significant reductions in average daily gain, live body weight at slaughter, and hot carcass weight and an increase in ribeye area-to-hot carcass weight ratio. Seropositive status also was associated with significant increases in cost of treatment and significant reductions in income. Sick seropositive calves had the highest cost of treatment. An economic loss of $15.62/calf was projected for seropositive calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant reductions in postweaning weight gain, carcass weight, and economic return were associated with detection of antibodies to N caninum in beef calves in a feedlot. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 1356–1360)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the epidemiologic plausibility of a sylvatic transmission cycle for Neospora caninum between wild canids and beef cattle.

Design—Spatial analysis study.

Animals—1,009 weaned beef steers from 94 beef herds in Texas.

Procedure—Calves were grouped on the basis of seroprevalence for N caninum and ecologic region in Texas. The Morans I test was used to evaluate spatial interdependence for adjusted seroprevalence by ecologic region. Cattle density (Number of cattle/259 km2 [Number of cattle/100 mile2] of each ecologic region) and abundance indices for gray foxes and coyotes (Number of animals/161 spotlight-transect [census] km [Number of animals/100 census miles] of each ecologic region) were used as covariates in spatial regression models, with adjusted seroprevalence as the outcome variable. A geographic information system (GIS) that used similar covariate information for each county was used to validate spatial regression models.

Results—Spatial interdependence was not detected for ecologic regions. Three spatial regression models were tested. Each model contained a variable for cattle density for the ecologic regions. Results for the 3 models revealed that seroprevalence was associated with cattle density and abundances of gray foxes, coyotes, or both. Abundances of gray foxes and coyotes were collinear. Results of a GIS-generated model validated these spatial models.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Texas, beef cattle are at increased risk of exposure to N caninum as a result of the abundance of wild canids and the density of beef cattle. It is plausible that a sylvatic transmission cycle for neosporosis exists. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1361–1365)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-, carbapenem-, and fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the feces of hospitalized horses and on hospital surfaces.

SAMPLE

Fecal and environmental samples were collected from The Ohio State University Galbreath Equine Center (OSUGEC) and a private referral equine hospital in Kentucky (KYEH). Feces were sampled within 24 hours after hospital admission and after 48 hours and 3 to 7 days of hospitalization.

PROCEDURES

Fecal and environmental samples were enriched, and then selective media were inoculated to support growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones.

RESULTS

358 fecal samples were obtained from 143 horses. More samples yielded growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes (AmpC β-lactamase, OR = 4.2; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, OR = 3.2; and fluoroquinolone resistance, OR = 4.0) after 48 hours of hospitalization, versus within 24 hours of hospital admission. Horses hospitalized at KYEH were at greater odds of having fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria (OR = 2.2). At OSUGEC, 82%, 64%, 0%, and 55% of 164 surfaces had Enterobacteriaceae bacteria with AmpC β-lactamase phenotype, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype, resistance to carbapenem, and resistance to fluoroquinolones, respectively; prevalences at KYEH were similarly distributed (52%, 32%, 1%, and 35% of 315 surfaces).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may be isolated from the feces of hospitalized horses and from the hospital environment. Hospitalization may lead to increased fecal carriage of clinically important antimicrobial-resistance genes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine necropsy and Mycobacterium bovis culture results in cattle from herds with tuberculosis, the role of the bovine NRAMP1 gene in resistance and susceptibility to infection with M bovis, and the association between magnitude of the tuberculous lesions and various types of M bovis isolates.

Animals—61 cattle from herds with tuberculosis in Texas and Mexico.

Procedure—61 cattle were evaluated by necropsy; 59 had positive and 2 had negative caudal fold tuberculin intradermal test (CFT) results. Thirty-three cattle with positive CFT results were genotyped to evaluate polymorphism of the 3' untranslated region of the bovine NRAMP1 gene, using single-stranded conformational analysis, 9 were resistant to M bovis with no tuberculous lesions and negative M bovis culture results, and 24 were susceptible with tuberculous lesions and positive M bovis culture results. Isolates of M bovis were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on the basis of IS6110 sequences and direct-repeat fingerprinting patterns.

Results—21 (35.6%; 21/59) cattle with positive CFT results had tuberculous lesions or positive culture results; in addition, 1 of 2 cattle with negative CFT results had tuberculous lesions and positive culture results. Tuberculous lesions were most common in the thorax (35/63; 55.5%) and lymphoid tissues of the head (10/63; 15.9%). Tuberculous lesions varied from 1 to 11/animal; 8 of 21 (38.1%) had solitary lesions. Associations were not found between resistance or susceptibility to infection with M bovis and polymorphism in the NRAMP1 gene or between the magnitude of the lesions and various RFLP types of M bovis isolates.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The NRAMP1 gene does not determine resistance and susceptibility to infection with M bovis in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1140–1144)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research