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SUMMARY

Three-week-old weaned and colostrum-deprived neonatal (< 1 day old) pigs were inoculated to determine the pathogenicity of 2 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates that do not express K88, K99, F41, or 987P adhesins (strains 2134 and 2171). Strains 2134 and 2171 were isolated from pigs that had diarrhea after weaning attributable to enterotoxigenic E coli infection. We found that both strains of E coli adhered in the ileum and caused diarrhea in pigs of both age groups. In control experiments, adherent bacteria were not seen in the ileum of pigs < 1 day old or 3 weeks old that were noninoculated or inoculated with a nonpathogenic strain of E coli. These control pigs did not develop diarrhea. Antisera raised against strains 2134 and 2171 and absorbed with the autologous strain, grown at 18 C, were used for bacterial-agglutination and colony-immunoblot assays. Both absorbed antisera reacted with strains 2134 and 2171, but not with strains that express K99, F41, or 987P adhesins. A cross-reaction was observed with 2 wild-type K88 strains, but not with a K12 strain that expresses K88 pili. Indirect immunofluorescence with these absorbed antisera revealed adherent bacteria in frozen sections of ileum from pigs infected with either strain. We concluded that these strains are pathogenic and express a common surface antigen that may be a novel adhesin in E coli strains that cause diarrhea in weaned pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether numbers of coliform bacteria in feces of dairy cattle changed during the periparturient period and whether fluctuations were associated with changes in dry-matter intake.

Animals—12 healthy Holstein cows.

Procedure—Fecal samples were collected on a semiregular basis (ie, 3 to 7 times/wk) beginning 4 to 6 weeks before the anticipated parturition date and continuing through the third day (5 cows) or second week (7 cows) after parturition, and total numbers of fecal coliform bacteria were determined. Daily feed intake of 7 cows was monitored.

Results—For 11 cows, fecal coliform bacterial counts between 34 and 25 days prior to parturition were low and relatively constant (< 102 change in number of bacteria). Coliform bacteria were not detected in 4 to 8% of fecal samples from 10 cows. All cows had a 104 to 107 increase in number of colony forming units/g of feces near the time of parturition. Number of fecal coliform bacteria peaked within 7 days of parturition in 9 cows and within 12 days of parturition in 3. Number of fecal coliform bacteria was not correlated with feed intake.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cows may have large increases in fecal coliform bacteria count during the periparturient period; however, periparturient cows do not continually shed high numbers of coliform bacteria, and coliform bacteria may not always be detectable by conventional culture methods. Changes in fecal coliform bacteria count did not correlate with changes in dry-matter intake. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1636–1638)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In October 2014, a health-care worker who had been part of the treatment team for the first laboratory-confirmed case of Ebola virus disease imported to the United States developed symptoms of Ebola virus disease. A presumptive positive reverse transcription PCR assay result for Ebola virus RNA in a blood sample from the worker was confirmed by the CDC, making this the first documented occurrence of domestic transmission of Ebola virus in the United States. The Texas Department of State Health Services commissioner issued a control order requiring disinfection and decontamination of the health-care worker's residence. This process was delayed until the patient's pet dog (which, having been exposed to a human with Ebola virus disease, potentially posed a public health risk) was removed from the residence. This report describes the movement, quarantine, care, testing, and release of the pet dog, highlighting the interdisciplinary, one-health approach and extensive collaboration and communication across local, county, state, and federal agencies involved in the response. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:531–538)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association