Objective—To determine the diagnostic value of a serologic microagglutination test (MAT) and a PCR assay on urine and blood for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI).
Animals—76 dogs with AKI in a referral hospital (2008 to 2009).
Procedures—Dogs’ leptospirosis status was defined with a paired serologic MAT against a panel of 11 Leptospira serovars as leptospirosis-associated (n = 30) or nonleptospirosis-associated AKI (12). In 34 dogs, convalescent serologic testing was not possible, and leptospirosis status was classified as undetermined. The diagnostic value of the MAT single acute or convalescent blood sample was determined in dogs in which leptospirosis status could be classified. The diagnostic value of a commercially available genus-specific PCR assay was evaluated by use of 36 blood samples and 20 urine samples.
Results—Serologic acute testing of an acute blood sample had a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 76% to 100%), a sensitivity of 50% (33% to 67%), and an accuracy of 64% (49% to 77%). Serologic testing of a convalescent blood sample had a specificity of 92% (65% to 99%), a sensitivity of 100% (87% to 100%), and an accuracy of 98% (88% to 100%). Results of the Leptospira PCR assay were negative for all samples from dogs for which leptospirosis status could be classified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serologic MAT results were highly accurate for diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs, despite a low sensitivity for early diagnosis. In this referral setting of dogs pretreated with antimicrobials, testing of blood and urine samples with a commercially available genus-specific PCR assay did not improve early diagnosis.
Objective—To evaluate the agreement of blood pressure measurements and hypertension scores obtained by use of 3 indirect arterial blood pressure measurement devices in hospitalized dogs.
Design—Diagnostic test evaluation.
Animals—29 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—5 to 7 consecutive blood pressure readings were obtained from each dog on each of 3 occasions with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, a standard oscillometric device (STO), and a high-definition oscillometric device (HDO).
Results—When the individual sets of 5 to 7 readings were evaluated, the coefficient of variation for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) exceeded 20% for 0% (Doppler), 11 % (STO), and 28% (HDO) of the sets of readings. After readings that exceeded a 20% coefficient of variation were discarded, repeatability was within 25 (Doppler), 37 (STO), and 39 (HDO) mm Hg for SAP. Correlation of mean values among the devices was between 0.47 and 0.63. Compared with Doppler readings, STO underestimated and HDO overestimated SAP. Limits of agreement between mean readings of any 2 devices were wide. With the hypertension scale used to score SAP, the intraclass correlation of scores was 0.48. Linear-weighted inter-rater reliability between scores was 0.40 (Doppler vs STO), 0.38 (Doppler vs HDO), and 0.29 (STO vs HDO).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that no meaningful clinical comparison can be made between blood pressure readings obtained from the same dog with different indirect blood pressure measurement devices.
Objective—To determine fluid retention, glomerular filtration rate, and urine output in dogs anesthetized for a surgical orthopedic procedure.
Animals—23 dogs treated with a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.
Procedures—12 dogs were used as a control group. Cardiac output was measured in 5 dogs, and 6 dogs received carprofen for at least 14 days. Dogs received oxymorphone, atropine, propofol, and isoflurane for anesthesia (duration, 4 hours). Urine and blood samples were obtained for analysis every 30 minutes. Lactated Ringer's solution was administered at 10 mL/kg/h. Urine output was measured and glomerular filtration rate was estimated. Fluid retention was measured by use of body weight, fluid balance, and bioimpedance spectroscopy.
Results—No difference was found among control, cardiac output, or carprofen groups, so data were combined. Median urine output and glomerular filtration rate were 0.46 mL/kg/h and 1.84 mL/kg/min. Dogs retained a large amount of fluids during anesthesia, as indicated by increased body weight, positive fluid balance, increased total body water volume, and increased extracellular fluid volume. The PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature decreased in a linear manner.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs anesthetized for a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy retained a large amount of fluids, had low urinary output, and had decreased PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature. Evaluation of urine output alone in anesthetized dogs may not be an adequate indicator of fluid balance.
Objective—To assess patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars in veterinary professional staff and dog owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis and to contrast these patterns in people with those observed in dogs.
Sample Population—Human subjects consisted of 91 people (50 veterinarians, 19 technical staff, 9 administrative personnel, and 13 dog owners) exposed to dogs with leptospirosis. Canine subjects consisted of 52 dogs with naturally occurring leptospirosis admitted to the University of Bern Vetsuisse Faculty Small Animal Clinic in 2007 and 2008.
Procedures—People were tested for seroreactivity to regionally prevalent Leptospira serovars by use of a complement fixation test. A questionnaire designed to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity was used to collect demographic information from each study participant. Dogs were tested for seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars by use of a microscopic agglutination test.
Results—On the basis of microscopic agglutination test results, infected dogs were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars as follows (in descending order): Bratislava (43/52 [83%]), Australis (43/52 [83%]), Grippotyphosa (18/52 [35%]), Pomona (12/52 [23%]), Autumnalis (6/52 [12%]), Icterohemorrhagiae (4/52 [8%]), Tarassovi (2/52 [4%]), and Canicola (1/52 [2%]). All 91 people were seronegative for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. Therefore, statistical evaluation of risk factors and comparison of patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars between human and canine subjects were limited to theoretical risks.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars among veterinary staff adhering to standard hygiene protocols and pet owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis was uncommon.
OBJECTIVE To assess the expression of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in venous whole blood of dogs with impaired renal function attributable to various causes.
ANIMALS 46 dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI), 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and 10 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs with AKI and CKD were prospectively enrolled during 2010 if they met inclusion criteria. Demographic and laboratory characteristics were evaluated for each dog, and expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10, and transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) and enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] and 5-lipoxygenase [5-LO]) was measured in venous whole blood obtained at initial evaluation.
RESULTS Dogs with impaired renal function had markedly higher expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO, compared with expression in healthy dogs. Additionally, 17 of 46 AKI dogs (but none of the CKD dogs) had higher IL-8 mRNA expression and 3 of 8 CKD dogs (but only 2/46 AKI dogs) had higher TNF-α expression, compared with results for healthy dogs. No significant difference between renal disease groups was detected for inflammatory markers and laboratory variables, degree of azotemia, or cause of impaired renal function.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and TGF-β and the enzyme 5-LO was clearly increased in dogs with renal disease, which suggested that these markers were part of an inflammatory response in animals with AKI or CKD. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:218–224)