Interarcuate branch (IAB) is a vascular structure, particularly developed in C2-3 intervertebral space, forming a dorsal bridge that connects ventral venous plexi in the vertebral canal. While precisely described in the human, the precise anatomical features of IABs have not been reported in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the features and relations of IABs in the C2-3 vertebral canal.
10 dogs were enrolled; 5 dogs for necropsy and 5 dogs for histology.
The ventral venous plexi in the cervical spine of 5 dogs were injected with latex and underwent vertebral canal dissection for visual assessment of the IAB. Two out of 5 dogs were injected with the addition of barium sulfate and underwent a CT scan. The C2-3 regions of 5 small-breed dogs were harvested for histological examinations.
IABs arose from the ventral venous plexus at the level of the intervertebral vein; they originated from 2 separate branches located caudally and cranially to the intervertebral foramen, forming a ventrodorsal triangle surrounding the spinal nerve root. No dorsal anastomosis was observed on the CT scan nor at dissection but were observed histologically. A cervical fibrous sheath was observed all around the vertebral canal.
IABs are voluminous venous structures at the C2-3 intervertebral space in dogs and found within a split of the cervical fibrous sheath, which is adherent to the interarcuate ligament and the ligamentum flavum. This anatomical description is paramount when planning an approach to the C2-3 intervertebral space.
OBJECTIVE To assess use of a new radiographic method to determine the distance by which the tibial tuberosity should be advanced to reduce the patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) to 90° by means of the modified Maquet technique (MMT) in dogs.
SAMPLE 24 pelvic limbs from 12 adult medium-sized to large-breed canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Radiographs of stifle joints at 135° extension in true lateral position were used to determine tibial tuberosity advancement distances for use in the MMT. A method was devised to incorporate the planned osteotomy axis; distal patellar translations of 0, 3, 5, or 10 mm; and advancement cage implant application level along the osteotomy site in advancement planning measurements. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were calculated to compare these adjusted advancement measurements with true advancement measurements obtained for the same joints in another study after treatment by MMT. Intraobserver, interobserver, and total agreement for selected measurements were determined by assessment of CCCs for results obtained by 3 blinded observers.
RESULTS Agreement between true advancement measurements and measurements obtained with osteotomy axis and cage position method calculations that incorporated a 5-mm distal patellar translation distance was excellent (CCC, 0.96). Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for the planning measurements evaluated were good to excellent (CCC, 0.83 to 0.96).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the osteotomy axis and cage position method incorporating a 5-mm distal patellar translation distance has the potential to improve success rates for achieving a PTA of 90° in medium-sized to large-breed dogs undergoing MMT for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Further research is warranted.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the validity of 2 radiographic methods for measurement of the tibial tuberosity advancement distance required to achieve a reduction in patellar tendon–tibial plateau angle (PTA) to the ideal 90° in dogs by use of the modified Maquet technique (MMT).
SAMPLE 24 stifle joints harvested from 12 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Radiographs of stifle joints placed at 135° in the true lateral position were used to measure the required tibial tuberosity advancement distance with the conventional (AM) and correction (AE) methods. The MMT was used to successively advance the tibial crest to AM and AE. Postoperative PTA was measured on a mediolateral radiograph for each advancement measurement method. If none of the measurements were close to 90°, the advancement distance was modified until the PTA was equal to 90° within 0.1°, and the true advancement distance (TA) was measured. Results were used to determine the optimal commercially available size of cage implant that would be used in a clinical situation.
RESULTS Median AM and AE were 10.6 mm and 11.5 mm, respectively. Mean PTAs for the conventional and correction methods were 93.4° and 92.3°, respectively, and differed significantly from 90°. Median TA was 13.5 mm. The AM and AE led to the same cage size recommendations as for TA for only 1 and 4 stifle joints, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both radiographic methods of measuring the distance required to advance the tibial tuberosity in dogs led to an under-reduction in postoperative PTA when the MMT was used. A new, more accurate radiographic method needs to be developed.
To compare ex vivo postimplantation biomechanical characteristics of 3 implants for canine total hip replacement: a cementless press-fit femoral stem with a pin in the femoral neck (p-pfFS), a press-fit cementless femoral stem without this pin (pfFS), and a cemented femoral stem (cFS).
18 cadaveric femurs from 9 dogs.
Femurs were assigned randomly to 3 groups, and biomechanical testing was performed by measuring vertical displacement during cyclic loading and resistance to failure with compression parallel to the longitudinal axis of the femur. Force-displacement curves were assessed for failure tests, and work necessary for failure was calculated.
No significant differences were observed in vertical displacement during cyclic loading (P = .263) or work necessary for failure (P = .079). Loads to failure for cFS and p-pfFS implants were significantly greater than that for the pfFS, but no significant difference in load to failure was observed between cFS and p-pfFS implants (P = .48).
Cementless femoral stems with a transfixation pin offer significantly greater immediate resistance to failure to compressive loads parallel to the longitudinal axis of the femur than standard cementless stems, and a level of stability comparable to that of cemented stems. p-pfFS implants may be valuable in total hip replacement, potentially reducing the risk of fracture during the early postoperative period prior to osteointegration.