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  • Author or Editor: Theresa W. Fossum x
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Case records of 9 dogs and 5 cats with eosinophilic effusions were reviewed. The animals ranged from 11 months to 13 years old. Seven animals had pleural effusions, 5 had peritoneal effusions, and 2 had pleural and peritoneal effusions.

Neoplasia was confirmed in 6 animals and suspected in 1. Eosinophilic pleural effusion was diagnosed 2 days after pneumothorax developed as a consequence of thoracic tube placement in a cat, and pneumothorax was diagnosed in another cat with eosinophilic peritoneal effusion. Other abnormalities seen in 1 or 2 animals associated with eosinophilic effusion were radiographic signs of interstitial or peribronchial pulmonary infiltrates, a history of allergic respiratory tract and skin disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia and lung lobe torsion, chylothorax, bite wounds causing intestinal perforation, and feline leukemia virus infection.

Based only on the protein concentration of the effusion, 7 effusions were classified as transudates and 7 were classified as exudates. Five of the 14 animals had eosinophilia (> 1,200 eosinophils/μl); 3 of these animals had neoplastic disease. Mean eosinophil count in blood samples was not significantly different between animals with neoplasia and those without. Eosinophil counts in blood samples were not linearly related to counts in effusions; however, in some animals the number of eosinophils in the effusion was much higher than the eosinophil count in blood, suggesting concentration of eosinophils in the effusion.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of the thoracic duct (td) was performed in 10 healthy and 12 dogs with experimentally created td abnormalities (6 dogs with td lacerations and 6 dogs with cranial vena ligations). Complete imaging took 4 hours and caused no adverse effects or complications. Lymphoscintigraphy of healthy dogs failed to image the td; however, background activity in the abdomen and thorax, and radioactivity in the kidneys, bladder, liver, and heart were noticed.

Lacerations and transections of the td were experimentally created in 6 dogs to ascertain whether td rupture could be detected with lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed within 48 hours of creating the td defect. There was no significant difference in the scintigraphic pattern of healthy dogs and those with experimentally created td defects.

Ligation of the cranial vena cava was performed in 6 dogs; 3 dogs developed chylothorax. In those 3 dogs, diffuse radioactivity was imaged in the thorax and was compatible with thoracic lymphangiectasia. In one of these dogs, linear activity consistent with the td and localized regions of radioactivity cranial to the heart (compatible with the mediastinal lymph nodes) were noticed. Lymphoscintigraphic findings in these dogs correlated with lymphangiographic findings.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To devise a technique for gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava.

Animals—8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed between 25 and 30 kg.

Procedure—Baseline evaluation of dogs included serum biochemical analyses and determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An occluder was placed around the vena cava in the region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood samples were collected every 48 hours for the first week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic examination. The GFR and biochemical data were compared with baseline values.

Results—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava was easily and consistently performed with this method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected. Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values did not deviate from reference ranges.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1347–1353)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research