Objective—To devise a technique for gradual occlusion
of the caudal vena cava in dogs and determine
effects of complete occlusion of the caudal vena cava.
Animals—8 mixed-breed hounds that weighed
between 25 and 30 kg.
Procedure—Baseline evaluation of dogs included
serum biochemical analyses and determination of
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with dynamic renal
scintigraphy and plasma clearance analysis. An
occluder was placed around the vena cava in the
region cranial to the renal veins. The occluder was
attached to a vascular access port. The vena cava was
gradually occluded over 2 weeks. The GFR was measured
every 2 weeks after surgery, and venograms
were performed every 3 weeks after surgery. Blood
samples were collected every 48 hours for the first
week and then weekly thereafter to measure BUN
and creatinine concentrations and activities of alanine
transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine
kinase. Dogs were euthanatized 6 weeks after
surgery, and tissues were submitted for histologic
examination. The GFR and biochemical data were
compared with baseline values.
Results—Gradual occlusion of the caudal vena cava
was easily and consistently performed with this
method, and adverse clinical signs were not detected.
Formation of collateral vessels allowed overall
GFR to remain constant despite a decrease in function
of the left kidney. Measured biochemical values
did not deviate from reference ranges.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gradual
occlusion of the caudal vena cava may allow removal
of adrenal gland tumors with vascular invasion that
would otherwise be difficult or impossible to resect.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1347–1353)
Objective—To determine long-term results and complications
of gonadectomy performed at an early age
(prepubertal) or at the traditional age in cats.
Animals—263 cats from animal shelters.
Procedure—Cats that underwent gonadectomy were
allotted to 2 groups on the basis of estimated age at
surgery (traditional age, ≥ 24 weeks old; prepubertal,
< 24 weeks old). Adoptive owner information was
obtained from shelter records, and telephone interviews
were conducted with owners to determine
physical or behavioral problems observed in the cats
after adoption. Follow-up information was obtained
from attending veterinarians for cats with complex
problems or when owners were uncertain regarding
the exact nature of their cat's problem.
Results—Compared with traditional-age gonadectomy,
prepubertal gonadectomy did not result in an
increased incidence of infectious disease, behavioral
problems, or problems associated with any body system
during a median follow-up period of 37 months.
Additionally, the rate of retention in the original adoptive
household was the same for cats that underwent
prepubertal gonadectomy as those that underwent
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prepubertal
gonadectomy may be performed safely in cats without
concern for increased incidence of physical or
behavioral problems for at least a 3-year period after
gonadectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: