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To quantitate numbers of immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing cells (IgA, IgG, and IgM) and T cells (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) in the colonic mucosa of healthy dogs, and to determine whether mean cell numbers differ among colonic regions.


10 clinically normal young adult mixed-breed dogs.


Endoscopically obtained specimens of ascending, transverse, and descending colonic mucosa were stained specifically for IgA, IgG, and IgM heavy chains and T-cell antigens, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+, using immunoperoxidase techniques. Morphometric analysis, performed by light microscopy, was used to quantitate numbers in these standardized areas of colonic mucosa. Data analysis allowed determination of mean cell numbers in each colonic region, as well as comparison of mean cell numbers among colonic regions.


The CD3+ and CD8+ T cells were the predominant immune cell types in all colonic regions. In the mucosa, CD3+ T cells were significantly (P < 0.05) more numerous than CD8+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were significantly (P < 0.05) more numerous than CD4+ T cells. The IgA-containing cells were significantly (P < 0.05) more numerous than IgG-containing cells, whereas IgM-containing cells were least numerous (P < 0.05). Differences in mean cell counts among colonic regions were not significant for Ig-containing cells or T cells.


Mean numbers of immune cells did not differ significantly among colonic regions in healthy dogs, although differences existed in mean populations of T cells and Ig-containing cells. The CD3+ and CD8+ T cells were the most numerous immune cell types in colonic mucosa.

Clinical Relevance

These quantitative data provide a basis for study of alterations in populations of mucosal immune cells and their possible contribution to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract disease. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:552–556)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Cardiopulmonary responses were evaluated in 12 dogs undergoing endoscopy (gastroscopy and enteroscopy). Constant endoscopic insufflation was used to distend the stomach and small intestine for 30 minutes in groups of small (< 10 kg; n = 4), medium (10 to 20 kg; n = 4), and large (> 20 kg; n = 4) dogs. Cardiopulmonary measurements within groups prior to gastric distention (preendoscopy) were compared with postendoscopy measurements and with those made during endoscopy. After distending the stomach and small intestine, increased luminal pressure within the body of the stomach and in the descending duodenum (P < 0.05) and increased abdominal girth (P < 0.05) were observed, with the greatest changes in small dogs. Caudal vena cava pressures and mean arterial and pulmonary artery pressures increased (P < 0.05) during endoscopy. Cardiac index varied, with small dogs having greater cardiac index (P < 0.05) during endoscopy, compared with that in medium and large dogs. Minute volume remained unchanged during insufflation, despite a decrease in tidal volume (P < 0.05), because of an increase in respiratory rate (P < 0.05). Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a mild, mixed metabolic/respiratory acidosis in all groups. Although cardiopulmonary changes associated with gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were common, the changes were often small and of little clinical significance.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The effects of hypertonic saline solution (htss) combined with colloids on hemostatic analytes were studied in 15 dogs. The analytes evaluated included platelet counts, one-stage prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, von Willebrand's factor antigen (vWf:Ag), and buccal mucosa bleeding times. The dogs were anesthetized, and jugular phlebotomy was used to induce hypovolemia (mean arterial blood pressure = 50 mm of Hg). Treatment dogs (n = 12) were resuscitated by infusion (6 ml/kg of body weight) of 1 of 3 solutions: htss combined with 6% dextran 70, 6% hetastarch, or 10% pentastarch. The control dogs (n = 3) were autotransfused. Hemostatic analytes were evaluated prior to induction of hypovolemia (baseline) and then after resuscitation (after 30 minutes of sustained hypovolemia) at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 6 and 24 hours.

All treatment dogs responded rapidly and dramatically to resuscitation with hypertonic solutions. Clinically apparent hemostatic defects (epistaxis, petechiae, hematoma were not observed in any dog. All coagulation variables evaluated, with the exception of vWf:Ag, remained within reference ranges over the 24-hour period. The vWf:Ag values were not statistically different than values from control dogs, and actual values were only slightly lower than reference ranges. Significant (P ≤ 0.04) differences were detected for one-stage prothrombin time, but did not exceed reference ranges. The results of this study suggested that small volume htss/colloid solutions do not cause significant alterations in hemostatic analytes and should be considered for initial treatment of hypovolemic or hemorrhagic shock.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research