Objective—To compare effects of orally administered tepoxalin, carprofen, and meloxicam for controlling aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis in dogs, as determined by measurement of aqueous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations.
Animals—38 mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were allotted to a control group and 3 treatment groups. Dogs in the control group received no medication. Dogs in each of the treatment groups received an NSAID (tepoxalin, 10 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h; carprofen, 2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; or meloxicam, 0.2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) on days 0 and 1. On day 1, dogs were anesthetized and an initial aqueocentesis was performed on both eyes; 1 hour later, a second aqueocentesis was performed. Aqueous samples were frozen at −80°C until assayed for PGE2 concentrations via an enzyme immunoassay kit.
Results—Significant differences between aqueous PGE2 concentrations in the first and second samples from the control group indicated that aqueocentesis induced uveitis. Median change in PGE2 concentrations for the tepoxalin group (10 dogs [16 eyes]) was significantly lower than the median change for the control group (8 dogs [16 eyes]), carprofen group (9 dogs [16 eyes]), or meloxicam group (9 dogs [16 eyes]). Median changes in PGE2 concentrations for dogs treated with meloxicam or carprofen were lower but not significantly different from changes for control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tepoxalin was more effective than carprofen or meloxicam for controlling the production of PGE2 in dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Tepoxalin may be an appropriate choice when treating dogs with anterior uveitis.
Objective—To determine whether there was a
decline in the percentage of dogs undergoing necropsies
and whether there was substantial agreement or
disagreement between clinical and pathologic diagnoses.
Procedure—Medical records of hospitalized dogs
that died or were euthanatized and necropsied at a
veterinary teaching hospital in 1989 and 1999 were
reviewed. Clinical and pathologic diagnoses were
recorded and compared.
Results—There was a significant decline in the
necropsy rate of hospitalized dogs that died or were
euthanatized in 1999, compared with 1989. In both
1989 and 1999, there was disagreement between the
clinical and pathologic diagnoses in approximately a
third of the cases.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite
improved diagnostic methods, the accuracy of diagnosis
did not improve significantly in 1999, compared
with 1989. Necropsy is the best method to assess
overall diagnostic accuracy. Increased availability of
teaching funds may promote efforts to have necropsies
performed in veterinary teaching hospitals. ( J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:403–406)
Objective—To quantitatively determine echogenicity
of the liver and renal cortex in clinically normal cats.
Animals—17 clinically normal adult cats.
Procedure—3 ultrasonographic images of the liver and
the right kidney were digitized from video output from
each cat. Without changing the ultrasound machine
settings, an image of a tissue-equivalent phantom was
digitized. Biopsy specimens of the right renal cortex
and liver were obtained for histologic examination.
Mean pixel intensities within the region of interest
(ROI) on hepatic, renal cortical, and tissue-equivalent
phantom ultrasonographic images were determined by
histogram analysis. From ultrasonographic images,
mean pixel intensities for hepatic and renal cortical ROI
were standardized by dividing each mean value by the
mean pixel intensity from the tissue-equivalent phantom.
Results—The mean (± SD) standardized hepatic
echogenicity value was 1.06 ± 0.02 (95% confidence
interval, 1.02 to 1.10). The mean standardized right
renal cortical echogenicity value was 1.04 ± 0.02
(95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.08). The mean
combined standardized hepatic and renal cortical
echogenicity value was 1.02 ± 0.05 (95% confidence
interval, 0.99 to 1.04).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Quantitative
determination of hepatic and renal cortical echogenicity
in cats is feasible, using histogram analysis, and
may be useful for early detection of diffuse parenchymal
disease and for serially evaluating disease progression.
(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1016–1020)
Objective—To determine the refractive states of eyes in domestic cats and to evaluate correlations between refractive error and age, breed, and axial globe measurements.
Animals—98 healthy ophthalmologically normal domestic cats.
Procedures—The refractive state of 196 eyes (2 eyes/cat) was determined by use of streak retinoscopy. Cats were considered ametropic when the mean refractive state was ≥ ± 0.5 diopter (D). Amplitude-mode ultrasonography was used to determine axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth.
Results—Mean ± SD refractive state of all eyes was −0.78 ± 1.37 D. Mean refractive error of cats changed significantly as a function of age. Mean refractive state of kittens (≤ 4 months old) was −2.45 ± 1.57 D, and mean refractive state of adult cats (> 1 year old) was −0.39 ± 0.85 D. Mean axial globe length, anterior chamber length, and vitreous chamber depth were 19.75 ± 1.59 mm, 4.66 ± 0.86 mm, and 7.92 ± 0.86 mm, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Correlations were detected between age and breed and between age and refractive states of feline eyes. Mean refractive error changed significantly as a function of age, and kittens had greater negative refractive error than did adult cats. Domestic shorthair cats were significantly more likely to be myopic than were domestic mediumhair or domestic longhair cats. Domestic cats should be included in the animals in which myopia can be detected at a young age, with a likelihood of progression to emmetropia as cats mature.
Objective—To evaluate the refractive error induced by intraocular administration of silicone oil (SiO) in dogs.
Animals—47 client-owned dogs evaluated for blindness secondary to retinal detachment.
Procedures—3-port pars plana vitrectomy with perfluoro-octane and SiO exchange (1,000- or 5,000-centistoke SiO) was performed in 1 or both eyes for all dogs (n = 63 eyes), depending on which eye or eyes were affected. Dogs were normotensive, had complete oil filling of the eyes, and were examined in a standing position for retinoscopic examination of both eyes (including healthy eyes).
Results—The mean refractive error for SiO-filled phakic and pseudophakic eyes was 2.67 and 3.24 D, respectively. The mean refractive error for SiO-filled aphakic eyes was 6.50 D. Dogs in which 5,000-centistoke SiO was used had consistently greater positive refractive errors (mean, 3.45 D), compared with dogs in which 1,000-centistoke SiO was used (mean, 2.10 D); however, the difference was nonsignificant. There was no significant linear relationship between refractive error and the number of days between surgery and retinoscopy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperopia was observed in all dogs that underwent SiO tamponade, regardless of lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic). Aphakic eyes underwent a myopic shift when filled with SiO. Pseudophakic eyes appeared to be more hyperopic than phakic eyes when filled with SiO; however, additional investigation is needed to confirm the study findings.
Objective—To determine whether antemortem core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes could be used to distinguish between inflammation and lymphosarcoma in cattle.
Animals—25 cattle with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.
Procedures—Antemortem biopsies of the selected lymph nodes were performed with an 18-gauge, 12-cm core needle biopsy instrument. Fine-needle aspirates were performed with a 20-gauge, 4-cm needle. Specimens were analyzed by pathologists who were unaware of clinical findings and final necropsy findings, and specimens were categorized as reactive, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic for comparison with necropsy results.
Results—Sensitivity and specificity of core needle biopsy ranged from 38% to 67% and from 80% to 25%, respectively. Sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration ranged from 41% to 53%, and specificity was 100%. Predictive values for positive test results ranged from 77% to 89% for core needle biopsy and were 100% for fine-needle aspiration. Predictive values for negative test results were low for both core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that core needle biopsy and fineneedle aspiration can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of bovine enzootic lymphosarcoma. Results of fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes were more specific and more predictive for a positive test result than were results of core needle biopsy.
Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.
Viewpoint articles represent the opinions of the authors and do not represent AVMA endorsement of such statements.
Antimicrobial stewardship has been defined for the veterinary profession as “the actions veterinarians take individually and as a profession to preserve the effectiveness and availability of antimicrobial drugs through conscientious oversight and responsible medical decision-making while safeguarding animal, public, and environmental health.”1 These actions may include making a commitment in one’s veterinary practice by assigning a staff member to track stewardship activities, selecting antimicrobials in a judicious and evidence-based manner, or attending continuing education about antimicrobial use (AMU) decision-making. The