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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A free-ranging male bobcat (Lynx rufus) was evaluated because of signs of pelvic limb paralysis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination of the anesthetized animal revealed tick infestation, normal mentation, and a lack of evidence of traumatic injuries. Radiography revealed no clinically relevant abnormalities. Hematologic analysis results were generally unremarkable, and serologic tests for exposure to feline coronavirus, FeLV, FIV, and Toxoplasma gondii were negative. Results of PCR assays for flea- and common tick-borne organisms other than Bartonella clarridgeiae were negative.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Ticks were manually removed, and the patient received supportive care and fipronil treatment. The bobcat made a full recovery within 72 hours after treatment for ticks, and a presumptive diagnosis of tick paralysis was made. Identified tick species included Dermacenter variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, and Ixodes scapularis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, tick paralysis has not previously been reported in felids outside Australia. This disease should be considered a differential diagnosis in felids, including exotic cats, with signs of neuromuscular disease of unknown etiopathogenesis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

We evaluated the efficacy of acyclovir against experimentally induced herpesvirus infection (Pacheco's parrot disease) in Quaker parakeets. Thirty-two of 40 birds were challenge-exposed with 0.1 ml of a suspension of herpesvirus (104 median cell culture infective doses [ccid 50]) given im. Treatment with acyclovir was started 24 hours later and was continued for 7 days. The birds were allotted to 5 groups of 8 birds each. There was a considerable difference in mortality between groups 1–5. Of 8 birds in each group, 6 died in group 1 (control), 1 died in group 2 (gavage), 3 died in group 3 (low dose, im), 4 died in group 4 (high dose, im), and none died in group 5 (contact controls). There was a significant (P = 0.023) difference in mortality between groups 1 and 2, thus the oral form of acyclovir administered by gavage was the most efficacious therapeutic regimen. Clinical signs and death occurred after discontinuation of acyclovir in groups 2 and 3, whereas the mean time of death for the control group was 6 days after challenge exposure. Herpesvirus was recovered by inoculation of chick embryo cell culture with pooled tissue suspensions from all birds that died. Histologic evidence of herpesvirus infection was found in most birds that died, with the control group having the most severe lesions. Surviving Quaker parakeets were transferred to cages with seronegative Quaker parakeets with no known exposure to herpesvirus. There have been no deaths attributable to herpesvirus infection in a period exceeding 2 years.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research